When you hear about metric measurements, usually you are bombarded with terms denoting length, height or volume, depending on your industry. Outside of formal schooling, you almost never hear about the geographical side of measurement - specifically, those ever-present invisible lines of latitude and longitude. This article will explore how some metrics are shown in geographical terms, who uses traditional Degrees/Minutes/Seconds, and what the future may hold.
A Brief History of U.S. Metrics
Originating in France in the 1790s, the metric system (officially known as "SI", short for "Le Systeme International d'Unites") grew in popularity due to increasing global commerce. Through trade with Europe, the U.S. awareness of metrics trickled into existence, eventually prompting Congress to permit its use in 1866. It was legal but voluntary.
The first official legislation concerning metric conversion was passed by Congress in 1974, adding metrics to our elementary and secondary education curriculum.
One year later (in 1975), Congress passed the Metric Conversion Act, declaring that the U.S. federal government should use metrics as its preferred measurement system, as evidenced by a box sitting in my cubicle whose labeling instructions tell of letters that must be "3.81cm (1.5 inches)" high. The nutritional information on any package of food is also a good example, showing grams (instead of ounces) of fat, carbs, vitamins, etc.
Ever since its beginnings, the U.S. government has striven to promote and stabilize metrication, with limited results: mostly those in the sciences, military, engineering, manufacturing and other technical fields use the metric system.
The general public, however, continues to show comparatively overwhelming disinterest in adopting grams, litres, and meters over the traditional ounces, quarts, and feet. The United States is the only remaining industrialized country whose general population does not use metrics as its primary measurement system.
Metrics and Geography
Despite the average American layperson's apathy for metrics, those of us who use geographic coordinates on a daily basis see plenty of evidence that decimals are out in full force. On any given day I'll see a few handfuls of engineering site surveys (and sometimes other data) come across my desk, 98% of which have a decimal somewhere in the latitude or longitude.
As technology has developed over the years, allowing more accurate measurements, the number of ways that we geography people get to read those coordinates has increased. The three most popular types of Lat/Lon displays are:
- Traditional degrees/minutes/seconds (D/M/S), usually with decimal seconds
- Degrees with decimal minutes, no seconds
- Decimal degrees, no minutes, no seconds
Doing the Math
No matter how you choose to display them, any converted coordinates will get you to the same point, basically - it's simply a matter of preference. If you are one of those people who grew up learning only D/M/S like me, you might break into a cold sweat the first time you see the second or third decimal variations (bulleted above), if only from the memory of your high school algebra classes.
But fear not, for there are a boatload of conversion programs and websites that will do the math for you. A majority of these sites convert between D/M/S and decimal degrees, leaving out the less popular but still available decimal minutes.
There are other sites for those who don't mind/enjoy algebra, or who are naturally intrepid souls and simply wish to brave the longhand algebraic equations. If you are ready to break out the Texas Instruments calculator and go for it, you might try the Montana Natural Resource Information System, which shows conversion equation examples, but also has an automatic converter.
Finally Rubbing Off?
Within the past few years, more and more Americans seem to be warming up to the concept and have begun using decimals in their everyday lives. Certainly, the growing number of metric labels on many foods, drinks, health care, cleaners and other various products are clear indicators that the average American consumer should probably start learning to accept decimal numbers.
This goes for geography as well. GPS unit sales to the nonmilitary population are on the rise and most (if not all) GPS units display a location using decimals. One can expect hiking, boating, driving, or any other type of navigational information to be in this same format, no matter the scale, map projection, or elevation.
As the rest of the world moves forward with metric standards, the United States government will most likely feel more pressure (especially from Europe) to go totally metric for global trading purposes. Once the population finally accepts that change is coming, decimal numbers will be even more abundant and it will filter down through every aspect of American industry.
For those hikers, boaters, drivers, orienteering students, land surveyors and others who may be used to using only D/M/S, don't worry. The conversions are out there, and it's easier than you think to get results from them. Latitude and longitude lines certainly aren't going anywhere - we'll always have those to rely on - so for now, get ready and warm up that calculator!
Len Morse earned a B.S. in Geography from Towson State University and has been with the FAA for approximately 14.61 years.