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I realize that the
tag is a part of HTML forms, which first appeared in the Mosaic browser in April 1993. It was standardized in HTML2 in November 1995.
The input tag is part of HTML and as such not an "add on" that just one browser would have used/supported. According to this page, the input tag was a part of HTML2, which rolled out between 1995 and 1997. That would put it on Netscape Navigator and IE (IE 3 came out in 1996).
Track websites History even when Browser History is cleared
Now, if someone opens your PC in absence of you, you always have a thought on your mind to track his websites usage history. Now, for the sake of spying instinct of yours, here is a small tip with which you can find the list of websites he visited recently. Note that this trick works even if he clears his Browser cache or he goes for private browsing using VPN or TOR browser. Every One Knows that By pressing CTRL+H you can reach the history pages of browsers like chrome. Mozilla etc. So, he don’t need to be a geek to clear browsing data, if he wants to hide where he have gone.
But, there is a thing known as DNS cache which keeps the record of the urls even when all methods of deleting their history have been employed. No , matter how smart he is in erasing the footprints in sands of time, you can fetch all his records in a notepad. Lets see how this works.
Step 1 – Search cmd in windows 10 search box.
Step 2 – Right click on command prompt icon and choose run as administrator.
Step 3 – Now, once it write or paste the code given below and hit enter
This will take you to C folder. Alternatively, you can choose any path here.
Now, copy and paste the command given below and hit Enter Key.
Step 4 – Now, the DNS cache has been recorded on a file named websiteslist.txt.
Now, where is this file located?
Exactly, at the same location where you ran the command. In this case it was simply C folder.
Alternatively, you can also search for this file in search box of taskbar in windows to find the file.
Step 6 – Now, open the txt file in notepad and there you go. All the recently websites visited on your PC are listed here.
One thing to note is that when you open a website, many more third party URL also opens along with it and thus DNS cache list will contain that also. For example, a wordpress blog will most probably contain Gravatar.com. In addition to it, the some sub-domains creates a separate entry.
But, you can keep scrolling this huge (But not so huge) list to find the website you want to know about. You can also use Ctrl+F to find any website in the list.
How to Delete this DNS cache so that no one can track you
Just open CMD and type ipconfig /flushdns and press enter. This record will be cleared and your usage history of visited websites can’t be tracked using the method explained above,
Saurav is associated with IT industry and computers for more than a decade and is writing on The Geek Page on topics revolving on windows 10 and softwares.
World Wide Web Timeline
Since its founding in 1989, the World Wide Web has touched the lives of billions of people around the world and fundamentally changed how we connect with others, the nature of our work, how we discover and share news and new ideas, how we entertain ourselves and how communities form and function.
The timeline below is the beginning of an effort to capture both the major milestones and small moments that have shaped the Web since 1989. It is a living document that we will update with your contributions. To suggest an item to add to the timeline, please message us.
- The World Wide Web begins as a CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) project called ENQUIRE, initiated by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee. Other names considered for the project include “The Information Mesh” and “The Mine of Information.”
- AOL launches its Instant Messenger chat service and begins welcoming users with the iconic greeting “>”You’ve got mail!”
- The NeXT Computer used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN. (Wikipedia)
- 42% of American adults have used a computer.
- World’s first website and server go live at CERN, running on Tim Berners-Lee’s NeXT computer, which bears the message “This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER DOWN!”
- Tim Berners-Lee develops the first Web browser WorldWideWeb. , the first tool to search the internet is developed by McGill University student Alan Emtage.
- Researchers rig up a live shot of a coffee pot so they could tell from their computer screens when a fresh pot had been brewed. Later connected to the World Wide Web, it becomes the first webcam.
- CERN places its World Wide Web technology in the public domain, donating it to the world.
- The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) releases Mosaic 1.0, the first web browser to become popular with the general public. “The web as we know it begins to flourish,” Wired later writes.
- The New York Times writes about the Web browser Mosaic and the World Wide Web for the first time. “Think of it as a map to the buried treasures of the Information Age.”
- Marc Andreessen proposes the IMG HTML tag to allow the display of images on the Web.
- 11 million American households are “equipped to ride the information superhighway.”
- One of the first known Web purchases takes place: a pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese from Pizza Hut.
- President Bill Clinton’s White House comes online. by Stanford University graduate students Jerry Yang and David Filo. They originally named the site “Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web.”
- The first banner ad for hotwired.com appears, with the text “Have you ever clicked your mouse right HERE? —> YOU WILL.”
- Two lawyers post the first massive, commercial spam message with the subject “Green Card Lottery -Final One?”
- 18 million American homes are now online, but only 3% of online users have ever signed on to the World Wide Web.
- Amazon.com opens for business, billing itself as the “Earth’s Biggest Bookstore.”
- Craig Newmark starts craigslist, originally an email list of San Francisco events.
- Match.com, the first online dating site, launches.
- Entrepreneur Pierre Omidyar launches eBay, originally named “AuctionWeb.” He lists the first item for sale: a broken laser pointer. A collector purchases it for $14.83.
- Chris Lamprecht becomes the first person to be banned from the internet by judicial decree. “I told the judge computers were my life,” Lamprecht later recalled.
- Netscape IPO starts the gold rush mentality for Web startups.
- Microsoft releases Windows 95 and the first version of Internet Explorer.
- Web hosting service GeoCities launches.
- 77% of online users send or receive e-mail at least once every few weeks, up from 65% in 1995.
- Nokia releases the Nokia 9000 Communicator, the first cellphone with internet capabilities.
- HoTMaiL launches as one of the world’s first Webmail services, its name a reference to the HTML internet language used to build webpages. , a 3D animation, becomes one of the first viral videos.
- Millions “visit Mars – on the internet” – the Jet Propulsion Lab allows people to watch the Sojourner rover landing and exploration of Mars. The broadcast generates about 40 million to 45 million hits each day.
- Netflix launches as a company that sends DVDs to homes via mail. launches as Jomax Technologies.
- Google.com registers as a domain.
- Jorn Barger becomes the first person to use the term “Weblog” to describe the list of links on his website.
- 20% of Americans get news from the internet at least once a week, up from 4% in 1995.
- AOL launches AOL 4.0 and inundates American homes with CD-ROM mailers. AOL membership jumps from 8 million to 16 million members.
- The Internet Corporations for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) takes over responsibility for the coordination of the global internet’s systems of unique identifiers.
- Pew Research Center tests online polling with mixed results.
- 41% of adults are using the internet and the weather is the most popular online news attraction.
- MP3 downloading service Napster launches, overloading high-speed networks in college dormitories. Many colleges ban the service and it is later shut down for enabling the illegal sharing of music files.
- Yahoo! acquires GeoCities for $3.6 billion.
- 43% of internet users say they would miss going online “a lot,” up from 32% in 1995.
- 78% of internet users who download music don’t think it’s stealing to save music files to their computer hard drives.
40 million Americans – or 48% of internet users – have purchased a product online.
The average internet user spends 83 minutes online.
- 55 million people now go online from work and 44% of those who have internet access at work say their use of the internet helps them do their jobs.
- Screenshot by Wired
- 11% of American internet users follow the returns on election night online. One-in-ten internet users sign up for political email newsletters and news alerts during the campaign.
- Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg launches thefacebook.com. 1,200 Harvard students sign up within the first 24 hours. Facebook goes on to become the world’s biggest social networking site, with over a billion users worldwide.
- Google starts trading on the NASDAQ at $85 a share.
- Social news website Digg launches. Digg users vote to “digg up” links that they like and “bury” down those they don’t. .
- Massively multiplayer online role-playing game(MMORPG) World of Warcraft launches.
- 8% of adult American internet users say they participate in sports fantasy leagues online.
- 9% of internet users (13 million Americans) went online to donate money to the victims of Gulf Coast hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
About one-in-six online adults – 25 million people – have sold something online.
- The late Senator Ted Stevens describes the internet as “a series of tubes,” during a 2006 speech on net neutrality. His quote is mocked by Boing Boing and the Daily Show and inspires YouTube remixes. . YouTube founders Chad and Steve announce the Google acquisition in a “>video recorded in a parking lot: “The king of search and the king of video have gotten together.”
- Twitter launches. Founder Jack Dorsey sends the first tweet: “just setting up my twttr”
- 36% of American online adults consult Wikipedia. have at least heard about “>Hillary and Bill Clinton’s video parody of the final episode of “The Sopranos” and 19% have actually seen it.
- 36% of Americans say they would have a hard time giving up their Blackberry or other wireless email device, up from 6% in 2002.
- Apple releases its first iPhone, priced at $499 for 4GB and $599 for 8G.
- Estonia becomes the world’s first country to use internet voting in a parliamentary election.
- Three-quarters (74%) of internet users – or 55% of the entire U.S. adult population — say they went online during the presidential election to take part in or get news and information about the campaign.
- 19% of cellphone owners say they have gone online with their phones.
- Google releases the Chrome Web browser. is introduced.
- Deal-of-the-day website Groupon launches.
- Apple launches its App Store with 552 applications. , but the two companies cannot agree on a purchase price.
- World of Warcraft hits 11.5 million subscribers worldwide. Guinness Book of World Records names it the most popular MMORPG.
- 69% of Americans turn to the internet to cope with and understand the recession.
- Microsoft’s Bing search engine launches.
- Twitter raises $98 million from investors, valuing the company at a whopping $1 billion.
- The Web is transfixed by the tale of a six-year-old boy flying over Colorado in a weather balloon. The story later proves to be a hoax.
- Kanye West’s VMA outburst sparks an internet meme.
- Viral videos like David After Dentist, Susan Boyle, “>Baby Dancing to Beyonce, and the JK Wedding Entrance Dance launch ordinary people into newfound Web stardom.
- 35% of adults have cell phones with apps, but only two-thirds actually use them.
- Social photo-sharing sites Pinterest and Instagram launch.
- Wikileaks collaborates with major media organizations to release U.S. diplomatic cables.
- Ex-Facebook employees launch user-based question and answer site Quora.
- 15% of social media-using teens say they have been the target of online meanness.
- 68% of all Americans say the internet has had a major impact on the ability of groups to communicate with members.
- LinkedIn reaches 100 million users and debuts on NYSE. for $8.5 billion.
- Google+ launches.
- Young Egyptians use the hashtags #Egypt and #Jan25 on Twitter to spread the word about the Egyptian Revolution. The government responds by shutting down the internet.
- Rebecca Black’s “ &feature=kp”>Friday” becomes a YouTube sensation.
- Among the 13% of US adults who made a financial contribution to a presidential candidate, 50% donated online or via email.
- Facebook reaches 1 billion monthly active users, making it the dominant social network worldwide. Some analysts start calling it “Facebookistan.” The company buys Instagram for $1 billion and debuts on NASDAQ at $38 a share.
- South Korean music star PSY’s “ &feature=kp”>Gangnam Style” video surpasses Justin Bieber’s “ &feature=kp”>Baby” as the most viewed video ever, with over 800 million views.
- Ecommerce sales top $1 trillion worldwide.
- The Internet Society founds the Internet Hall of Fame to “celebrate people who bring the internet to life.”
- A majority (56%) of Americans now own a smartphone of some kind.
- 51% of U.S. adults bank online.
- Former CIA employee and NSA contractor Edward Snowden turns over thousands of classified documents to media organizations, exposing a top-secret government data surveillance program.
- Apple says app store downloads top 40 billion, with 20 billion in 2012 alone.
- Twitter files for its long-awaited IPO. Shares soar 73% above their IPO price of $26 a share on the first day of trading.
We’ve confidentially submitted an S-1 to the SEC for a planned IPO. This Tweet does not constitute an offer of any securities for sale.
&mdash Twitter (@Twitter) September 12, 2013
We are mostly aware of websites. A website is simply a collection of web pages. For creating any web page, we require HTML. An HTML is the element that is responsible for making any web page. HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a basic markup language used to make any web pages that further comprise to form websites. HTML had evolved so much from the initial stage when it was formed.
Let us know about the history of HTML.
Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others
W3C and WHATWG initially developed HTML. It was initially developed in 1993. W3C mainly checks for standards of Html and other stuff. Since the initial release, lots of version of Html has been developed. Initially, its version is 1.0 or simply HTML.
Different Versions of HTML
Let’s see the significance of the individual Versions of Html in details-
1. HTML 1.0
- The basic version of HTML has support for basic elements like text controls and images. This was the very basic version of HTML with less support for a wide range of HTML elements. It does not have rich features like styling and other things that were related to how content will be rendered in a browser.
- The initial version of HTML does not provide support for tables, font support, etc., as it provides us in the latest version.
- We would also like to discuss that W3C did not exist before HTML 2.0 hence it does not show details about HTML 1.
2. HTML 2
- HTML version 2.0 was developed in 1995 with basic intention of improving HTML version 1.0
- Now a standard got started to develop so as to maintain common rules and regulations across different browsers. HTML 2.0 has improved a lot in terms of the markup tags. In HTML 2.0 version concept of form came into force. Forms were developed, but still, they had basic tags like text boxes, buttons, etc.
- Also, the table came as an HTML tag. Now, in HTML tag 2.0, browsers also came with the concept of creating their own layers of tags that were specific to the browser itself. W3C was also formed. The main intention of W3C is to maintain standard across different web browsers so that these browsers understand and render HTML tags in a similar manner.
3. HTML 3.2
- It was developed in 1997. After HTML 2.0 was developed, the next version of HTML was 3.2
- With version 3.2 of HTML, HTML tags were further improved. It is worth noting that because of W3C standard maintenance, the newer version of HTML was 3.2 instead of 3.
- Now, HTML 3.2 has better support for new form elements. Another important feature what HTML 3.2 implemented was support for CSS. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet. It is CSS that provides features to make HTML tags look better on rendering it on browsers. CSS helps to style HTML elements.
- With the upgradation of browsers to HTML 3.2, the browser also supported for frame tags, although HTML specifications still do not support frame markup tags.
4. HTML 4.01
- It was developed in 1999. It extended the support of cascading styling sheets. In version 3.2, CSS were embedded in HTML page itself. Therefore, if the website has various web pages to apply to the style of each page, we must place CSS on each web page. Hence there was a repetition of the same block of CSS.
- To overcome this thing, in version 4.01 concept of an external styling sheet emerged. Under this concept, an external CSS file could be developed, and this external styling file could be included in HTML itself. HTML 4.01 provided support for further new tags of HTML.
- This is the latest version of HTML. For a developer, it could be used in 2014. It came up with lots of HTML tags support. HTML5 provided support for new form elements like input element s of different types geolocations support tags, etc.
Let us look at a few of the tags which were added to HTML5
- Email – New HTML5 tag, which was added, is the input element of type email. This is a form tag, although it could be used outside of a form tag also. This tag checks the validation of the input value. It checks whether the value inserted is a valid email.
- Password – This is another form tag that was added to receive a password from the user. Being the password type field, the user types in the field are not visible directly to the user but are represented by special symbols. These symbols save the password from getting revealed on the browser.
- Audio tag – This is a new audio tag that was implemented in HTML5. This tag helps to add audio to our web page. We can use this tag to embed an audio clip into a web page. This audio tag could be played on a webpage.
- Semantic tags – Semantic tags are also known as structural tags. Structural tags are the tags that provide structure to the HTML page. It helps it divide the HTML page into different structures. These structures get combined into an HTML page itself to form an HTML web page. Few of the important HTML semantic tags are figcaption, <header>, <footer>
- Section tag – This tag is used to semantic a section in an HTML page. A section tag represents a section on a web page.
6. W3C HTML Validator
An HTML validator is a web-based tool that is used to maintain or check whether a piece of HTML tag or HTML is valid. An HTML validator follows the standard of W3C to validate an HTML page. It follows the W3C standard.
There are lots of version of HTML which is being developed. From an initial version of 1.0 to the latest version of 5.2, HTML has developed a lot. W3C has also maintained standards so that all browsers could have a common standard to follow. HTML5 has developed a lot with new tags and the support of form elements.
How to Recover Browser/Internet History?
Here in this passage, we'll offer you three major methods to recover browser/internet history files: use DNS Cache to find deleted browsing history, use data recovery software to recover lost browsing history files or to recover deleted history by using Google history. And all these three methods can be applied for browsing internet history recovery on all browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, IE Edge etc. Let's see how to recover lost or deleted browser internet history now.
Method 1: Use DNS Cache to find and view deleted browsing history
DNS, which is known as Domain Name System, can work as a fast method to restore searches or history for you. But when computer is restarted, it will not be able to help you find browsing history then. DNS cache can only work when almost everything is connected to the internet. Therefore, if you need to restore deleted browsing history for an app or video game, please do not shut down or restart the computer. You may still have a chance to view the deleted internet history:
1. Press Windows + R, type cmd and click OK. Or you can also type cmd in Windows search bar.
2. Open Command Prompt, type ipcongif/displaydns and click Enter.
Then all your recently visited websites will be displayed. You can view all your recent browsing history and find those important websites back.
Method 2: Use data recovery software to recover lost browsing history files
If you don't know where to find your saved computer browsing history, please follow next path to see whether the history files are deleted or not now:
Google Chrome: C:Users(username)AppDataLocalGoogleChromeUser DataDefaultlocal storage
Mozilla Firefox: C:Users(username)AppDataRoamingMozillaFirefoxProfiles
Internet Explorer: C:Users(username)AppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsHistory
If you like to save all browser history in your computer like other files, when you deleted the browsing history from the browser, you'll delete the history files from your computer. You still have a chance to restore the deleted browsing history files by using professional data recovery software.
Here we'd like to recommend you to try EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard which can recover all deleted files including the browsing history data saved in your computer without any obstacles. Only three steps will do all recovery jobs: launch software > choose the location and scan > recover found browser/internet history data.
Method 3. Recover deleted browsing history from Google History
If you have Google Account and logged in everything when you browse websites, you will have a great chance to find and recover browser/internet history. When deleted history from browsers, the Google History is not deleted. It will store all browsing history including all pages that you've ever visited and even devices attached to your Google Account.
Go to Google History, sign in with Google account.
Then all of your browser/internet history will be displayed along with date/time.
When you carelessly deleted important history bookmarks or lost important websites, don't worry. Follow this article, EaseUS software will tell you how to recover browser/internet history files and data without any obstacles.
Extra Tip: Restoring deleted/lost Chrome history on Android phone
If you happen to lost your website browsing history or delete history on Android phone, don't worry. If you have turned on the Google sync on, things will be pretty easy for you to find the lost website browsing history back:
1. Open a webpage in Chrome
2. Open this page: https://www.google.com/settings/.
3. You'll see a list of everything that you have in Google and scroll down to Chrome Bookmarks.
There, you'll see everything that your phone has accessed through Chrome including the Bookmarks and apps.
History of the browser user-agent string
In the beginning there was NCSA Mosaic, and Mosaic called itself NCSA_Mosaic/2.0 (Windows 3.1), and Mosaic displayed pictures along with text, and there was much rejoicing.
And behold, then came a new web browser known as “Mozilla”, being short for “Mosaic Killer,” but Mosaic was not amused, so the public name was changed to Netscape, and Netscape called itself Mozilla/1.0 (Win3.1), and there was more rejoicing. And Netscape supported frames, and frames became popular among the people, but Mosaic did not support frames, and so came “user agent sniffing” and to “Mozilla” webmasters sent frames, but to other browsers they sent not frames.
And Netscape said, let us make fun of Microsoft and refer to Windows as “poorly debugged device drivers,” and Microsoft was angry. And so Microsoft made their own web browser, which they called Internet Explorer, hoping for it to be a “Netscape Killer”. And Internet Explorer supported frames, and yet was not Mozilla, and so was not given frames. And Microsoft grew impatient, and did not wish to wait for webmasters to learn of IE and begin to send it frames, and so Internet Explorer declared that it was “Mozilla compatible” and began to impersonate Netscape, and called itself Mozilla/1.22 (compatible MSIE 2.0 Windows 95), and Internet Explorer received frames, and all of Microsoft was happy, but webmasters were confused.
And Microsoft sold IE with Windows, and made it better than Netscape, and the first browser war raged upon the face of the land. And behold, Netscape was killed, and there was much rejoicing at Microsoft. But Netscape was reborn as Mozilla, and Mozilla built Gecko, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows U Windows NT 5.0 en-US rv:1.1) Gecko/20020826, and Gecko was the rendering engine, and Gecko was good. And Mozilla became Firefox, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows U Windows NT 5.1 sv-SE rv:1.7.5) Gecko/20041108 Firefox/1.0, and Firefox was very good. And Gecko began to multiply, and other browsers were born that used its code, and they called themselves Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh U PPC Mac OS X Mach-O en-US rv:1.7.2) Gecko/20040825 Camino/0.8.1 the one, and Mozilla/5.0 (Windows U Windows NT 5.1 de rv:22.214.171.124) Gecko/20071008 SeaMonkey/1.0 another, each pretending to be Mozilla, and all of them powered by Gecko.
And Gecko was good, and IE was not, and sniffing was reborn, and Gecko was given good web code, and other browsers were not. And the followers of Linux were much sorrowed, because they had built Konqueror, whose engine was KHTML, which they thought was as good as Gecko, but it was not Gecko, and so was not given the good pages, and so Konquerer began to pretend to be “like Gecko” to get the good pages, and called itself Mozilla/5.0 (compatible Konqueror/3.2 FreeBSD) (KHTML, like Gecko) and there was much confusion.
Then cometh Opera and said, “surely we should allow our users to decide which browser we should impersonate,” and so Opera created a menu item, and Opera called itself Mozilla/4.0 (compatible MSIE 6.0 Windows NT 5.1 en) Opera 9.51, or Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0 U en rv:1.8.1) Gecko/20061208 Firefox/2.0.0 Opera 9.51, or Opera/9.51 (Windows NT 5.1 U en) depending on which option the user selected.
And Apple built Safari, and used KHTML, but added many features, and forked the project, and called it WebKit, but wanted pages written for KHTML, and so Safari called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh U PPC Mac OS X de-de) AppleWebKit/85.7 (KHTML, like Gecko) Safari/85.5, and it got worse.
And Microsoft feared Firefox greatly, and Internet Explorer returned, and called itself Mozilla/4.0 (compatible MSIE 8.0 Windows NT 6.0) and it rendered good code, but only if webmasters commanded it to do so.
And then Google built Chrome, and Chrome used Webkit, and it was like Safari, and wanted pages built for Safari, and so pretended to be Safari. And thus Chrome used WebKit, and pretended to be Safari, and WebKit pretended to be KHTML, and KHTML pretended to be Gecko, and all browsers pretended to be Mozilla, and Chrome called itself Mozilla/5.0 (Windows U Windows NT 5.1 en-US) AppleWebKit/525.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/0.2.149.27 Safari/525.13, and the user agent string was a complete mess, and near useless, and everyone pretended to be everyone else, and confusion abounded.
20 years ago today, the World Wide Web opened to the public
Martin Bryant is founder of Big Revolution, where he helps tech companies refine their proposition and positioning, and develops high-qualit (show all) Martin Bryant is founder of Big Revolution, where he helps tech companies refine their proposition and positioning, and develops high-quality, compelling content for them. He previously served in several roles at TNW, including Editor-in-Chief. He left the company in April 2016 for pastures new.
Today is a significant day in the history of the Internet. On 6 August 1991, exactly twenty years ago, the World Wide Web became publicly available. Its creator, the now internationally known Tim Berners-Lee, posted a short summary of the project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup and gave birth to a new technology which would fundamentally change the world as we knew it.
The World Wide Web has its foundation in work that Berners-Lee did in the 1980s at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. He had been looking for a way for physicists to share information around the world without all using the same types of hardware and software. This culminated in his 1989 paper proposing ‘A large hypertext database with typed links’.
While the initial proposal failed to gain much momentum within CERN, it was later expanded into a more concrete document proposing a World Wide Web of documents, connected via hypertext links. World Wide Web was adopted as the project’s name following rejected possibilities such as ‘The Mine of Information’ and ‘The Information Mesh‘. The May 1990 proposal described the concept of the Web as thus:
HyperText is a way to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will. Potentially, HyperText provides a single user-interface to many large classes of stored information such as reports, notes, data-bases, computer documentation and on-line systems help. We propose the implementation of a simple scheme to incorporate several different servers of machine-stored information already available at CERN, including an analysis of the requirements for information access needs by experiments.
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The document envisaged the Web as being used for a variety of purposes, such as “document registration, on-line help, project documentation, news schemes and so on.” However, British Berners-Lee and his collaborator Robert Cailliau, a Belgian engineer and computer scientist, had the foresight to avoid being too specific about its potential uses.
In 1990, working on a computer built by NeXT, the firm Steve Jobs launched after being pushed out of Apple in the mid-80s, Berners-Lee developed the first Web browser software called, fittingly, WorldWideWeb. By the end of that year he had a working prototype of the Web running on a server at CERN.
Here’s what that very first browser looked like running on the NeXTStep operating system:
On 6 August 1991, the World Wide Web went live to the world. There was no fanfare in the global press. In fact, most people around the world didn’t even know what the Internet was. Even if they did, the revolution the Web ushered in was still but a twinkle in Tim Berners-Lee’s eye. Instead, the launch was marked by way of a short post from Berners-Lee on the alt.hypertext newsgroup, which is archived to this day on Google Groups.
The WWW project merges the techniques of information retrieval and hypertext to make an easy but powerful global information system.
The project started with the philosophy that much academic information should be freely available to anyone. It aims to allow information sharing within internationally dispersed teams, and the dissemination of information by support groups.
The post explained how to download the browser and suggested users begin by trying Berners-Lee’s first public Web page, at http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html.
Although that page is no longer available, a later version from the following year is archived here. It acted as a beginner’s guide to this new technology.
The evolution of the Web
From here on, things began developing rapidly for the Web. The first image was uploaded in 1992, with Berners-Lee choosing a picture of French parodic rock group Les Horribles Cernettes.
In 1993, it was announced by CERN that the World Wide Web was free for everyone to use and develop, with no fees payable – a key factor in the transformational impact it would soon have on the world.
While a number of browser applications were developed during the first two years of the Web, it was Mosaic which arguably had the most impact. It was launched in 1993 and by the end of that year was available for Unix, the Commodore Amiga, Windows and Mac OS. The first browser to be freely available and accessible to the public, it inspired the birth of the first commercial browser, Netscape Navigator, while Mosaic’s technology went on to form the basis of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
The growth of easy-to-use Web browsers coincided with the growth of the commercial ISP business, with companies like Compuserve bringing increasing numbers of people from outside the scientific community on to the Web – and that was the start of the Web we know today.
What was initially a network of static HTML documents has become a constantly changing and evolving information organism, powered by a wide range of technologies, from database systems like PHP and ASP that can display data dynamically, to streaming media and pages that can be updated in real-time. Plugins like Flash have expanded our expectations of what the Web can offer, while HTML itself has evolved to the point where its latest version can handle video natively.
The Web has become a part of our everyday lives – something we access at home, on the move, on our phones and on TV. It’s changed the way we communicate and has been a key factor in the way the Internet has transformed the global economy and societies around the world. Sir Tim Berners-Lee has earned his knighthood a thousand times over, and the decision of CERN to make the Web completely open has been perhaps its greatest gift to the world.
The future of the Web
So, where does the Web go from here? Where will it be in twenty more years? The Semantic Web will see metadata, designed to be read by machines rather than humans, become a more important part of the online experience. Tim Berners-Lee coined this term, describing it as “A web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines,” – a ‘giant global graph’ of linked data which will allow apps to automatically create new meaning from all the information out there.
This 14-minute video by Kate Ray is a great introduction to the concept of the Semantic Web.
Meanwhile, while not strictly ‘the Web’, the Internet of Things will allow physical objects to transmit data about themselves and their surroundings, bringing more information about the real world into the online realm. Imagine getting precise, live traffic data from all the local roads trains that tell your smartphone that they’re full before they arrive flowers that email you when they need watering maybe even implants in your body that give you real-time updates about your health that feed into a secure online ‘locker’ of your personal data. All this and more is possible with the Internet of Things, helping to transform what we expect from the Web and the Internet.
We can’t predict accurately everything that the future will hold for the Web, but whatever happens, it won’t stand still. Here’s to the next twenty years.
HTML <video> Tag
The <video> tag is used to embed video content in a document, such as a movie clip or other video streams.
The <video> tag contains one or more <source> tags with different video sources. The browser will choose the first source it supports.
The text between the <video> and </video> tags will only be displayed in browsers that do not support the <video> element.
There are three supported video formats in HTML: MP4, WebM, and OGG.
Removing a Photo Tag
You can remove a tag someone gave you by viewing the photo, selecting Options at the bottom, and then selecting Report/Remove Tag. Now you have two options to choose from:
I want to remove the tag: Check this box to remove the tag from your profile and from the photo.
Ask to have the photo removed from Facebook: If you think this photo is inappropriate in any way, you can report it to Facebook so they can decide if it needs to be removed.
How to Stop Facebook From Using Your Browsing History
Earlier this week, Facebook announced that it was going to start using all of that ever-so-illuminating app and website data it collects to serve us with more targeted ads. In other words, Facebook is getting ready to use your browsing history to benefit advertisers. Here's how to stop them.
Of course, just because you're getting some new (and highly necessary) controls over how Facebook shares your data doesn't mean it's going to stop collecting the data in the first place. So while we can at least somewhat limit how all of our salacious internet habits are being used, it doesn't mean the cache of data itself is going away.
What's more, the new feature is opt-out, so in order to keep your browsing history away from prying third-party eyes. You'll need to actively head over to the Digital Advertising Alliance here and let them know you're not willing to share.
Note: if you're using AdBlocker Plus or anything else that disables cookies, you're going to need to turn that off before you'll be able to opt out.