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William Cremer

William Cremer


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William Cremer was born in Fareham, Hampshire, on 18th March, 1828. His mother, a devout Methodist, sent him to a church school until becoming an apprenticed carpenter at the age of fifteen.

Cremer was an active trade unionist and took part in the campaign for the nine-hour day in 1858. He also helped to establish the International Working Men's Association and the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners. A pacifist, Cremer was a leading advocate of settling international disputes by arbitration.

Following the 1867 Reform Act, the working class made up the majority of the electorate. Cremer, a member of the Liberal Party, stood for Warwick in the 1868 General Election. He campaigned for the secret ballot, compulsory education, direct taxation, reform of trade union law, and international boards of arbitration to adjudicate disputes among nations. Cremer was defeated and also failed to be elected in the 1874 General Election.

In 1870 Cremer formed the Workmen's Peace Association. Initially it promoted England's neutrality during the Franco-Prussian War but eventually became the forerunner of the International Arbitration League (IAL).

The passing of the 1884 Reform Act made it easier for trade unionists to be elected to Parliament. The following year Cremer was elected to the working-class seat of Haggerston in London. Cremer used the public platform of the House of Commons to argue for international boards of arbitration to adjudicate disputes among nations. In 1888 he joined with the French politician, Frederick Passy, to form the Interparliamentary Union in Paris. The following year he became editor of the peace journal, The Arbitor.

Cremer was defeated in the 1895 General Election. but won his seat back five years later. Cremer's work for international peace resulted in him winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1903. He immediately gave £7,000 of the £8,000 prize to the International Arbitration League. Cremer, who was secretary of the IAL, later gave an additional £1,000 to the organization.

In the House of Commons Cremer, now a member of the Labour Party, campaigned for the rights of working class men but was strongly opposed to women's suffrage. This brought him into conflict with his party leader, Keir Hardie, a passionate supporter of women's rights.

William Cremer died of pneumonia on 22nd July, 1908.

He had always contended that if we opened the door and enfranchised ever so small a number of females, they could not possibly close it, and that it ultimately meant adult suffrage. The government of the country would therefore be handed over to a majority who would not be men, but women. Women are creatures of impulse and emotion and did not decide questions on the ground of reason as men did.

He was sometimes described as a woman-hater, but he had had two wives, and he thought that was the best answer he could give to those who called him a woman-hater. He was too fond of them to drag them into the political arena and to ask them to undertake responsibilities, duties and obligations which they did not understand and did not care for.

What did one find when one got into the company of women and talked politics? They were soon asked to stop talking silly politics, and yet that was the type of people to whom we were invited to hand over the destinies of the country.

It was not only because he thought that women were unfitted by their physical nature to exercise political power, but because he believed that the majority of them did not want it and would vote against it, that he asked the House to pause before they took the step suggested by the honorable member for Merthyr Tydfil (Keir Hardie). He believed that if women were enfranchised the end would be disastrous to all political parties. He therefore asked the House to pause before it took a step from which it could never retreat.


Randal Cremer

William Randal Cremer was nicknamed the "Member of Arbitration" by his colleagues in Parliament. This was not without reason. All his life he worked for the use of arbitration to resolve international conflicts, with the aim of preventing war.

Cremer held prominent positions of trust in the popular peace movement, and took the initiative for the establishment of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in 1889. The organization provided a forum where elected representatives of different countries could cooperate. It was a triumph for Cremer that the Hague Conference in 1899 resolved to establish an international court of arbitration. In Parliament, Cremer spoke out fearlessly against war, among other things criticizing the British Government for the Boer War in South Africa.

Randal Cremer's origins were humble. He was apprenticed as a carpenter, and became a trade unionist before being elected to Parliament. In 1907 King Edward VII dubbed the old peace activist a knight, and released Cremer from the obligation to wear a sword at the ceremony.

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INGALDESTHORP.

The principal lordship of this town was in King Edward's time possessed by Torvert, a freeman, who had 3 carucates in demean, 10 villains, 15 borderers, 2 servi, with 50 acres of meadow there were at that time, 3 carucates amongst the men, 2 mills and a salt-pit, 5 fisheries, 8 horses, 14 mares, &c. 340 sheep, and three freemen had a carucate, and 37 acres of land.

Peter Lord Valoins had a grant of this on the expulsion of Torvert, to whom belonged their right of foldage and protection, but Stigand had the soc, when it was valued at 9l. per ann. at the survey at 10l. but 12l. per ann. was paid for it, and was half a leuca long, and 5 furlongs broad, and paid 12d. to a 20s. gelt. (fn. 1)

Some suppose this town to take its name from one Ingulph, a Saxon, who was lord of it but it is more probable it derives its name from a small rivulet that runs by it, called now corruptly Ingol, but formerly Eulves, and in the grand survey, Eulves-Thorp, and also Thorp alone, without any additional name, and lying by meadows, and marshes, obtained the additional word Ing, and so Ingeulves-Thorp, or Ingaldesthorp.

Of the family of the Lords Valoins and their descendants, a particular account may be seen in Dersingham, where also they had the capital lordship.

Ralph Fucatus held it in the Conqueror's reign, of Peter Lord Valoins and Fulk de Munpinzun was lord of it in right of his wife, Agnes, daughter and heir of Fucatus, by whom he had a son, Ralph.

About the 3d of Henry III. Giles de Montepinzun was found to hold three knights fees in this town, of Yghulvesthorp and Riburgh, in Norfolk, and in Beleden in Essex. (fn. 2)

Giles, son of Ralph, was lord in the 34th of that King, and held it, as appears by a pleading of Isabella, wife of David Comyn. Sir Giles was a knight banneret, and died about 1320.

In the 9th of Edward I. Sir John de Monpinzun had a charter for free warren in this manor, and that of Ryburgh and in the 27th of that King, this lordship was settled by fine on Giles de Mountpinzun and Eustachia his wife, and their heirs, by Oliver de Mountpinzun, &c. their trustees. (fn. 3)

William, son of Sir Gyles, conveyed it by fine, in the 7th of Edward II. to Robert, son of John Walkefare, and Margaret his wife, together with the advowson of this church, who occurs lord in 1327.

After this, Sir Richard Walkefare inhcrited it and in 1349, the Lady Eufemia de Walkefar presented to this church.

Of this family was Sir Thomas de Walkefare, who signalized himself at the battle of Poytiers in France and in the 31st of Edward III. had from that King, a safe condnct for his prisoner, Sir Tristram de Mugalies, for Broinard, Gerrard de Brois, and Megerdos, the scutiferi or esquires of the said Sir Tristram, and for his three valets, to go on horseback or on foot, to France, to procure his ransom. (fn. 4)

In the 43d of the said King, Sir Thomas Felton, Knt. of the Garter, possessed it but in the 8th of Richard II. Sir John L'Estrange of Hunstanton, and Alianore his wife, who was daughter and coheir of Sir Richard Walkfar, for 500 marks, sold their right in this and Dersingham manor, to the Lady Joan, relict of Sir Thomas Felton, and sister to Alianore and in the 12th of that King, the Lady Joan settled it in trust, on Richard de Burnham, parson of Queen Hithe, in London.

In the 3d year of Henry V. John Curson, son of Sir John Curson, released to John Clifton and others, all his right herein, late the Lady Felton's. William Curson, Esq. son and heir of Sir John Curson, of Belaugh, released in the 28th of Henry VI. all his right herein, to his father, and his wife, Joan and Sir John Curson died seized of it, as appears by his will, dated January 10, 1471, and gives it to Thomas his son and heir, who died lord in 1511, leaving Dorothy his wife. John Curson, Esq. his son and heir, inherited it, and on his death, in 1546, it descended to William Curson, Esq. and to his son Thomas Curson, Esq. by Thomasine his wife.

About the year 1600, John Cremer, Gent. was lord and patron, and by Anne his wife, daughter of—Tash, had John Cremer of Ingaldesthorp, who married Margaret, daughter of William Boyton of Flitcham, in Norfolk, Esq. Francis Cremer was his son and heir, who by Margaret his wife, daughter of John Pell of Dersingham, Gent. had Francis, a son, aged 10 years, and a son Charles, in the year 1664 the arms of the family were argent, three wolves heads erased, sable, on a chief, gules, as many cinquefoils crest, a ram's head erased. (fn. 5)

Sir John Cremer of Ingaldesthorp was high sheriff of Norfolk in 1660.

Robert Cremer, Gent. sold this manor about 1730, (and afterwards entered into holy orders) to Theodore Hoste, Esq. brother to Colonel Hoste, of Sandringham, to whom he devised it, and Theodore Hoste, Esq. second son of the said colonel, is the present lord, as his male heir.

Another lordship in this town, (called Torp) belonged to Turchetel, a freeman, in the Confessor's reign, which on the conquest was granted to Roger, son of Renard to this there belonged a carucate and an half of land, 5 borderers, 2 servi, and 3 acres of meadow, 2 carucates in demean, afterwards 6 oxgangs, or bovates, &c. half a carucate of the tenants, the moiety of a mill, and a fishery, &c. valued in Turchill's time at 20s. at the survey at 30s. and Stigand had the soc. (fn. 6)

This lordship soon after this survey, came into the hands of the Earl Warren, and was held by the ancient family of Ingaldesthorp, who took their name from this town, of which family I shall treat at large in Reynham.

Robert de Ingaldesthorp held it of the Earl Warren, in the reign of King Stephen, also another in Snetesham of the Earl Warren, and on that account is sometimes (according to the custom of that age) wrote Robert de Snetesham.

In the 9th year of King John, a remarkable instance, relating to a murder of a person, offering itself, wherein one of the family of the Ingaldesthorps being concerned, I could not omit mentioning it in this place: (fn. 7)

John Chamberlain (Camerarius) then sued Herbert de Patesle, for the murder of Drugo Chamberlain, his brother, and by the King's license, the crime and punishment was thus compromised and agreed to:

Herbert was to travel to Jerusalem, there to serve God for the soul of Drugo who was slain, the space of 7 years, including the time of his going and returning, and if he returned into England before that time, he was to be punished as a convict and Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, (whom I presume was an accessary,) was to find a monk of Norwich, Castleacre, or Binham, or a canon of Thetford, Cokesford or Walsingham, to pray for the soul of the said Drugo, and also to pay to his parents the sum of 40 marks.

Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp was lord in 1272, and Sir John de Ingaldesthorp, son and heir of Sir William, in the 7th of Richard II.

Thomas Ingaldesthorp, Esq. died possessed of it in 1421 and in 1425, King Henry VI. committed the custody of this manor to Richard Elleswick, alias Sharnborn, on account of the minority of Edmund, son of the said Thomas, who being afterwards a knight, left Isabel his sole daughter and heir, in 1456, who married John Nevile, (son of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, and brother to Richard, the great Earl of Warwick) created Marquis Montacute, and Knt. of the Garter, and slain at Barnet-field, in the 10th of Edward IV. leaving George his son and heir, who died without issue, in 1483, leaving 5 sisters and coheirs but how this manor after this passed, does not appear, from any record that I have met with. It is probable that it was soon after in the Cursons, and so united to the aforesaid manor, as it continues at this time.

The Ingaldesthorps estate in Reynham, Wimbotsham, Snetesham, &c. in Norfolk, came (on a division of it among the 5 sisters and coheirs) to Isabella, the youngest, and so to the Huddlestons of Cambridgeshire, she marrying Sir William Hudleston.

The tenths were 2l. 16s. Deducted 6s.

The Church is dedicated to St. Michael, has a nave, a north and south isle, and a chancel covered with lead, and at the west end a square tower, with 3 bells, and directly before the south porch, at about 15 feet distance, stands a stone cross It is a rectory, the present valor in the King's books is 12l. anciently at 12 marks, and Peterpence 12d.

The priory of Binham had a portion of tithes valued in 1428, at four marks per ann.

On a gravestone in the chancel, with the arms of Cremer,

Hic jacet spe optima resurgendi corpus Johs. Cremer, generosi, filius quintus Johs. Cremer de Snetesham generosi, qui in uxorem duxit Margaretam filiam Gulielmi Boyton de Flitcham, armigi. et obt. Jan. 12 Ao. Sal. 1652, œt 70, et Margaretæ uxoris ejus pientissimæ quœ obt. Mart. 19, 1666, œtat. 68. Sic placide dormiunt Martius et uxor ut olim in thalamo, nunc in tumulo.

Boyton's arms are impaled by Cremer, on a fess indented between six cross crosslets, three escallops Cremer impaling ermin, on a canton, azure, a pelican, or Pell.

Franciscus, filius Johs. Cremer de Ingaldesthorp, gener. qui in uxorem duxit Margaretam filiam Johs. Pell de Dersingham arm. spe optimâ resurgendi sub hoc marmore placide dormit, et obt. Aug. 13 Ao. S. 1676, ætat. 49. Huc tendimus omnes.

Margareta pia conjux Franc. Cremer, gen. et filia Johs. Pell de Dersingham, arm. obt. 14 Nov. 1680, œtat. 50.

Elizabethœ uxoris alteræ Franci. Cremer, armigi. et filiœ Gulielmi Hartley de Brampton in agro Hunt. cæmeterium, hac vitâ migravit 26 die Mart. Ao. œtat. 32, Sal. 1681.

Cremer impaling sable, three lions passant in pale, argent, English.

Hic jacet corpus Luciœ Cremer, quæ tertia fuit uxor Franc. Cremer de hac villâ armig. unaq ex filiabus et coheredibus Edwi. English de Brightling in comit. Sussex, armig. obt. x Jan. 1685, œt. 31.

Cremer impaling a chevron, ermin, between three leaves slipped, Pearson.

Hic jacent reliquiœ Revdi. Gulielmi Cremer, A.M. de hac villa quondam rector, obt. 1 Apr. 1736, ætat. 72, hic juxta quoq posita est Maria conjux sua obt. 1737, œt. 67, Sept. 28.

The Lady Joan Curson, by her will, dated July 10, 1500, and proved November 30 following, widow of Sir John Curson, bequeaths her body to be buried in this chancel, her daughter Ann Littleburgh her executrix, and Sir Robert Drury supervisor. Joan was, as I take it, a daughter of—Bacon.

1612, May 16, Anne, wife of Thomas Cremer, here buried.—1620, June 17, Thomas Cremer.—1612, May 3, Anne, wife of John Cremer, junior.—1623, Anne, wife of John Cremer, senior, November 17.

In a window of the chancel was an Orate p.a'i'a. Robti Walkfare, militis, with his arms, argent, a lion rampant, sable, on his sinister shoulder, a mullet of the first and in one of the windows of the church, argent, a chevron, azure, and in chief, a file of five points, gules, Swillington, with an orale for Thomas de Swellington.

Peter de Valoins, who was the capital lord at the survey, gave, on his founding of Binham priory, two parts of his tithe to that house and Adam, son of Alured, for the souls of the Lady Becha his wife, and Peter de Valoins his grandfather, Roger de Valoins his uncle, Peter de Valoins, junior, his kinsman, gave a mansion, a croft, 3 acres in the field, one of meadow, 5 of pasture, with right of common, and a turbary. (fn. 8)

In 1275, there was an agreement between the prior of Binham, and Sir Edm. de Munpinzun, rector of this church, with the assent of Sir Jn. de Munpinzun, patron, and confirmed by the Bishop of Norwich, about the tithes of the demeans of the said Sir John, and of lands formerly Sir John de Breton's, that the rector should have the said tithe to him and his successours, paying 4 marks per ann. for the same to the prior and convent, under the penalty of 40s.

Before this, there was an agreement in the time of Bishop Raleigh, between the then prior, and Hugh de Ardern, rector, that the tithes aforesaid should belong to the prior.

Rectors.

1327, Andrew de Baskervyle, presented by Sir Robert de Walkefare, Knt.

1349, William Hamond, by the Lady Eufemia de Walkefare.

1379, John Syvell, by Sir Thomas de Felton,

1403, William Trendyl, by the Bishop of London, &c.

Adam Okden, rector, buried, 1504.

Marmaduke Cholmly, occurs rector in 1603.

Thomas Drake, rector, compounded 1609, and Simon Davy, in 1638.

Jonathan Catlin, rector, compounded 1644.

William Cremer occurs rector in 1696.

1736, Thomas Groom, junior, on Cremer's death, by Thomas Harris, Esq.

1742, Peter Lawson, by Robert Lawson, Esq.

1745, Thomas Weatherhead, (the present rector) presented by Robert Lawson, Esq.

There have been Roman coins found here. A small silver one of Nero legend, NERO. CÆ. AVG. IMP. bare headed Reverse, a civic crown, and PONTIF. MAX. TRIB. P. V. P. P. EX. S. C.

Also one less than a silver sixpence, an head with an helmet, no legend, the reverse, one, (but obscure) in a chariot, and 4 horses in career under them, ROMA. and one very small, antique and rude —an horse in full speed, probably a British coin.


Co-founder Sir William Randal Cremer

. The example of those nations who prefer arbitration to war, law courts to the battlefield, must sooner or later influence the belligerent powers and make war as unpopular as pugilism is now. — Sir William Randal Cremer

(Taken from Cremer´s Nobel lecture given in 1905, two years after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize)

Sir William Randal Cremer, or Randal Cremer, as he preferred to be called, began life in poverty but became one of the first working class English MPs, a leader of the international peace movement of the late 19th century and the first individual winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.

Cremer was born in the small town of Fareham in the South of England on 18 March 1828. His life got off to a rocky start when his father—a coach painter—deserted the family when he was an infant. Abandoned and impoverished, his mother was forced to raise Cremer and his two sisters on her own.

Cremer left school at the age of 12 to take a job in a local shipyard, working 12 hours a day. At 15 he became an apprentice carpenter. Eager to continue his education, Cremer attended numerous lectures. One talk in particular made an indelible impression on the young man. The speaker advocated the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means, and it was a message he never forgot.

Moving to London aged 24, Cremer became actively involved in the workers’ movement. Later he helped to organize the campaign for a nine-hour day and went on to found a trade union for carpenters.

He increasingly turned his attention to the rights of workers abroad, particularly those drawn into conflicts in which they had no interest. In 1864, Cremer was elected secretary general of the International Working Men’s Association, which included Karl Marx and other prominent socialists as members. However, he resigned two years later, saying the organization was run by “men who cared more for their isms than for the real cause of progress”.

It was the Franco-Prussian War that spurred Cremer’s involvement in the peace movement. On 21 July 1870, Cremer held a public meeting of working men in London to oppose any British intervention. They formed a “peace committee” which evolved into the Workmen’s Peace Association (later becoming the International Arbitration League). It had the visionary goal of “advocating the settlement of all international disputes by arbitration, and the establishment of a High Court of Nations for that purpose”.

Keen to engage in formal politics, Cremer won a parliamentary seat in 1885, when border reform created a new constituency—Haggerston in London’s East End—made up almost of entirely of working class voters.

He soon began pushing his "practical politics" for peace in Parliament, where he became known as the “member for arbitration” after leading a delegation to Washington D.C. to present President Cleveland with a memorandum signed by 234 British MPs supporting an arbitration treaty between Britain and the United States.

At the same time, the French parliament was also considering Frédéric Passy's motion on arbitration. Seeing this development, Cremer wrote to Passy suggesting a meeting between British and French MPs to exchange views. They organized a meeting in Paris in October 1888. Despite the small attendance of 25 French and 9 British MPs, the group decided to meet in Paris the following year.

Their meeting at the Hotel Continental in Paris on 30 June 1889 was attended by 83 French and English MPs as well as 11 parliamentarians from 7 other countries. The gathering was institutionalized, and so the Inter-Parliamentary Conference, later called the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), was founded. Frédéric Passy was elected President while Cremer became Vice-President.

Cremer’s passion for arbitration was the driving force behind the IPU’s major role in setting up the Permanent Court of Arbitration established in The Hague in 1899.

His efforts to create a more peaceful world were finally acknowledged in 1903 when he won the Nobel Peace Prize. He donated the £8,000 prize money to the International Arbitration League.

The 1906 IPU meeting, organized in London, was a personal triumph for Cremer. British Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman welcomed 617 members of IPU to the House of Lords in London. Membership of the organization had reached 2,500 MPs with no fewer than 38 arbitration treaties signed by 38 powers.

The British politician also continued to campaign tirelessly on behalf of workers well into his later years. He was knighted in 1907 and died on 22 July 1908.


William Cremer - History

Promoting the concepts of peace and international arbitration, the IPU provided the origins for today's form of institutionalized multilateral co-operation and advocated the establishment of corresponding institutions at the inter-governmental level -- which eventually came into being as the United Nations. The IPU was also instrumental in setting up what is now the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague.

Over the years, eight Nobel Peace Prizes -- including the first three -- were shared by leading personalities of the IPU:

1901: Frédéric Passy (France)
1902: Albert Gobat (Switzerland)
1903: William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom)
1908: Frederic Bajer (Denmark)
1909: August Beernaert (Belgium)
1913: Henri La Fontaine (Belgium)
1921: Christian Lange (Norway)
1927: Ferdinand Buisson (France)

The IPU has transformed itself from an association of individual parliamentarians into the international organization of the Parliaments of sovereign States (Article 1 of the Statutes of the Inter-Parliamentary Union) . It is a centre for dialogue and parliamentary diplomacy among legislators representing every political system and all the main political leanings in the world -- constituting a unique platform for observing political opinions and trends around the world. IPU statutory Assemblies and specialized meetings serve as a testing ground for new ideas and initiatives leading to important breakthroughs in the search for peace and advancing international co-operation.


Literature

1901: Dunant , Passy | 1902: Ducommun , Gobat | 1903: Cremer | 1904: IDI | 1905: by Suttner | 1906: Roosevelt | 1907: Moneta , Renault | 1908: Arnoldson , Bajer | 1909: Beernaert , Estournelles de Constant | 1910: IPB | 1911: Asser , Fried | 1912: Root | 1913: La Fontaine | 1914–1916: not awarded | 1917: ICRC | 1918: not awarded | 1919: Wilson | 1920: Bourgeois | 1921: Branting , Lange | 1922: Nansen | 1923–1924: not awarded | 1925: Chamberlain , Dawes | 1926: Briand , Stresemann | 1927: Buisson , Quidde | 1928: not awarded | 1929: Kellogg | 1930: Söderblom | 1931: Addams , Butler | 1932: not awarded | 1933: Angell | 1934: Henderson | 1935: von Ossietzky | 1936: Lamas | 1937: Cecil | 1938: International Nansen Bureau for Refugees | 1939–1943: not awarded | 1944: ICRC | 1945: Hull | 1946: Balch , Mott | 1947: The Friends Service Council , AFSC | 1948: not awarded | 1949: Boyd-Orr | 1950: Bunche | 1951: Jouhaux | 1952: Schweitzer | 1953: Marshall | 1954: UNHCR | 1955–1956: not awarded | 1957: Pearson | 1958: Pire | 1959: Noel-Baker | 1960: Luthuli | 1961: Hammarskjöld | 1962: Pauling | 1963: ICRC, League of Red Cross Societies | 1964: King | 1965: UNICEF | 1966–1967: not awarded | 1968: Cassin | 1969: ILO | 1970: Borlaug | 1971: Brandt | 1972: not awarded | 1973: Kissinger , Lê | 1974: MacBride , Satō | 1975: Sakharov | 1976: Williams , Corrigan | 1977: Amnesty International | 1978: Sadat , Begin | 1979: Mother Teresa | 1980: Pérez Esquivel | 1981: UNHCR | 1982: Myrdal , García Robles | 1983: Wałęsa | 1984: tutu | 1985: IPPNW | 1986: Wiesel | 1987: Arias Sánchez | 1988: UN peacekeepers | 1989: Dalai Lama | 1990: Gorbachev | 1991: Suu Kyi | 1992: Menchú | 1993: Mandela , Klerk | 1994: Arafat , Peres , Rabin | 1995: Rotblat , Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs | 1996: Ximenes Belo , Ramos-Horta | 1997: ICBL , Williams | 1998: Hume , Trimble | 1999: Doctors Without Borders | 2000: Kim | 2001: UN , Annan | 2002: Carter | 2003: Ebadi | 2004: Maathai | 2005: IAEA , el-Baradei | 2006: Yunus , Grameen Bank | 2007: IPCC , Gore | 2008: Ahtisaari | 2009: Obama | 2010: Liu | 2011: Sirleaf , Gbowee , Karman | 2012: EU | 2013: OPCW | 2014: Satyarthi , Yousafzai | 2015: Quartet du dialogue national | 2016: Santos | 2017: ICAN | 2018: Mukwege , Murad | 2019: Abiy


William Randal Cremer

William Randal Cremer was a member of British parliament, pacifist and advocate for international arbitration. He was the first individual winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1903. Randal Cremer was born in 1828 in Fareham in South England and died in 1908. His mother raised him and his two sisters by her own. Randal Cremer had to leave school at the age of 12 as he found a job in a shipyard. At the age of 15, he became a carpenter apprentice. He continued his education through attending lectures. At a lecture session on peace, in which the speaker suggested that the international disputes be settled by arbitration, Randal Cremer was impressed and never forgot the idea.

In 1852, Cremer moved to London and actively took part in the workers’ movement. In 1858, he was elected to a council of people who were running the nine-hour day campaign. He played a significant role in establishing a trade union for carpenters. In 1864, he was elected as the Secretary-General of the International Working Men’s Association but later resigned and stopped supporting as revolutionary thinkers dominated this organization.

Cremer was formally engaged with politics when he was elected as the member of British parliament in 1885. Since then several times he was elected as an MP by worker class votes in 1886, 1892 and finally in 1900 and retained the seat until his death. He started to his practical peace-related activities in Parliament formed the Workmen’s Peace Association in 1871, which was, in fact, the basis for the formation of The International Arbitration League. In 1887, he collected 234 signatures of members of Commons to a resolution addressed to the American congress and president, to suggest that disputes between the two government should be solved by diplomacy referred to arbitration.

Cremer wrote a letter to Frederic Passy, the 1901 Nobel Peace Prize winner, suggesting a meeting between British and French MPs, which occurred in October 1888 in Paris. The next meeting was organized in June 1889, in which 83 French and English MPs, and 11 parliamentarians from 7 other countries participated, and The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) was established. Randal Cremer was elected as Vice-President and Secretary of the British Section.

Due to his works for creating a peaceful world, he was awarded the 1903 Nobel Peace Prize. He donated the whole prize money to the International Arbitration of which he was serving as secretary.


William Randal Cremer

(1838–1908). English trade unionist and pacifist William Randal Cremer was a leading advocate of international arbitration as a means of achieving world peace. In 1888 he helped establish the Interparliamentary Union, a conference of delegates from the legislative bodies of the world’s nations, and subsequently served as that organization’s vice president. Cremer was awarded the 1903 Nobel prize for peace for his work in international arbitration. (See also Nobel prizes.)

Cremer was born on March 18, 1838, in Fareham, Hampshire, England. He was a carpenter by trade and in 1860 became one of the founders of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners. Cremer was also secretary of the British section of the International Working Men’s Association (First International) but resigned because of a dispute with another leader. He went on to found the Workmen’s Peace Association in 1870. This association, which promoted British neutrality during the Franco-Prussian War, was eventually renamed the International Arbitration League and was a precursor of the Interparliamentary Union, and Cremer served as its secretary until his death. He was also a member of the House of Commons from 1885 to 1895 and from 1900 to 1908. Cremer was knighted in 1907. He died on July 22, 1908, in London.


William Cremer - History


ALBERT WILLIAM CAMPBELL, a leading member of the bar of Aberdeen, and ex-judge of the fifth judicial circuit of South Dakota, was born October 10, 1856, at Oconomowoc, Waukesha county, Wisconsin. He spent his boyhood in Monroe county, Wisconsin, and secured his early education in the district school and the graded school of Tomah. He taught school for two years. He began the study of law at Madison, Wisconsin, in 1877, and in 1877-78 he took the law course at the University of Wisconsin. He was admitted to the bar in 1878, and the following year opened an office at Viroqua. Wisconsin, where he was engaged in practice until 1883, at which time he came to South Dakota, locating at Aberdeen, forming a partnership with C. N. Harris. In 1885 Judge Campbell formed a partnership with George W. Jenkins, which association continued until 1889. In 1886 he was elected to the South Dakota legislature and reelected in 1888 and in 1889 he was elected to the judgeship of the newly created fifth judicial circuit, he being the first judge of the same. His term as judge expired on January 1, 1902, when he returned to the practice, and has so continued. Both as a lawyer and judge, his career has been successful, and his standing in the legal profession of South Dakota is of the best. Judge Campbell has been twice married, the first time in 1880, to Lulu E. Casson, of Viroqua, Wisconsin, who died in 1891, leaving two children Joseph C. and Donald H. In, 1893 Judge Campbell married Marie Haven, of Webster, South Dakota. To this union three children have been born: Roger, Dorothy and William. [History of South Dakota, Vol. 2 by Doane Robinson B. F. Bowen & Co., Publisher 1904]

FRANK E. CAMPBELL, Tomah, was born in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. June 21, 1855, and was educated for the bar in the law school of the State University, from which he graduated in the class of 1878. He was admitted to practice in April, 1878, and entered upon his profession at Norwalk, in 1879. In January, 1880, he came to Tomah, has been in practice there to the present time, and has been in partnership with H. C. Spaulding, the firm being Spaulding & Campbell. [Source: The Bench and Bar of Wisconsin History and Biography, by Parker McCobb Reed, Milwaukee (1882) transcribed by Mary Saggio]

ROBERT CAMPBELL (Rep.), of Glendale, Monroe county, was born November 2, 184 , in Carlisle, England had a common school education is a merchant came to Wisconsin in 1845 was elected assemblyman for 1880 by 1,001 votes, against 400 for John F. Richard, and 266 for E. N. Palmer. [Source: Wisconsin Blue Book (1880) transcribed by RuthAnne Wilke]

LEE CANFIELD, president of the Sparta Iron Works. There are men of such broad minds, wide information and wonderful tact that by husbanding their forces and planning their various enterprises with something like military precision they are enabled to accomplish spendid results in different walks of life. Gifted with natural ability. Mr. Canfield has devoted his talent to the iron business, in which he has gained a prominent place. He is a product of Sparta, Wis., born June 15. 1873, and the son of Edward and Abigail (Goodwin) Canfield, natives of Connecticut. In the late forties they came to Monroe county and first located at Angelo, where the father farmed and later run a grist mill, and still later conducted a store. He became one of the most prominent and influential men of the county and did much for its advancement, and was at one lime a director in the Bank of Sparta. He was born in 1822 and died at Sparta in 1903. Mrs. Canfield was born in 1831 and died in 1909, aged seventy-eight years. The subject of this sketch bears the name of his grandfather, Lee Canfield, who was also a native of Connecticut and a prominent iron manufacturer in New England, and it was he who built the first ear wheels for the Housatonic railway. Mr. Canfield received his education in the public schools of Sparta and early became interested in the iron business. In 1872 the Sparta Iron Works was originated by L. M. Newbury and conducted by him for a number of years, when in 1894 a stock company was formed and the business incorporated. The ownership and management was taken over by the Canfield brothers and others in 1897 the corporation now has a cash capital of $40,000. They manufacture well-drilling machinery, which is sold throughout the United States and Canada and points in South America. This is the largest manufacturing institution in Sparta, and the present officers are: Lee Canfield, president George D. Dunn, vice president Robert Canfield, secretary and treasurer. In September, 1894, Mr. Canfield was married to Miss Sadie, daughter of John L. Mather, of Sparta. They have two children —Josephine and John Canfield. Fraternally Mr. Canfield is a member of the Knights of Pythias order. Robert Canfield was born at Sparta, May 22, 1875, and was educated in the public schools and Beloit College. He became a member of the Sparta Iron Works in 1896, and is its present secretary and treasurer. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias order and the Modern Woodmen of America. In June, 1899, he married Miss Mary Elizabeth Lee, daughter of W. F. Lee, of Sparta. Their children are Lee Goodwin, Robert Raymond and William Frederick Canfield.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

DANIEL M. CARGILL, dealer in live stock and wool, Sparta. Was born in East Gainesville, Wyoming Co., N. Y. He was brought up a farmer and resided in his native county till twenty-one years of age. He was married in Cattaraugus County, to Juliette Burrows, born in Cattaraugus County removed to Ashtabula Co., Ohio, in 1857, and engaged in clerking for D. M. Webster. Came here July 4, 1862. Mr. Cargill is an energetic business man and has been engaged in the stock business most of the time since he came to Sparta. He shipped the first car-load of cattle which passed over the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road to Chicago. Has been Town Treasurer several years, reelected in the Spring of 1881. Was Chairman of the Board of Supervisors for one year. Has six children one son and five daughters—Frankie, wife of Irving A. Smith, Olive A., Charles J., Minnie, Nellie and Etta. Lost four children—Emma, Addie, Louie G., and George W. Three of his children died in the same week, and two of them on same day, of that terrible scourge diphtheria.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

ANDREW J. CARNAHAN, retired, is descended from Scotch-Irish ancestry and was born in Mercer county, Pennsylvania, January 7, 1842, the sixth child in order of birth in a family of twelve children those besides our subject who are now living are: Elizabeth, wife of Charles Madison, of Newell. S. D. Nancy, widow of DeLos Henry, of Fingle, N. D. James M., who makes his home in California: Joseph H., of Black River Falls, Wis., and William, who lives at Wittenberg, Wis. Those deceased are: Archibald, Adam IL, Maggie, formerly the wife of Charles Trumley Jane, former wife of Adam Ringer, and two who died in infancy. James and Rosanah (McCormick) Carnahan, parents of our subject, who were natives of Pennsylvania, came to Wisconsin in 1856 and were among the pioneer settlers of Little Falls township, Monroe county, where he spent the balance of his life. He was one of the sturdy and well to do citizens of the county and a kind and obliging neighbor. In politics he was known as a war Democrat. He was the son of Andrew Carnahan, also a native of the Keystone state. He lived to the age of sixty-nine years and died in 1876. His widow, mother of our subject, survived until 1881, when she passed away at the age of seventy-one years. Our subject's maternal grandfather was Archibald McCormick, a native of Pennsylvania and an influential citizen of Sandy Lake. Andrew J. Carnahan was reared on the family homestead, receiving a common school education. After leaving home his first undertaking on his own account was at lumbering in the woods of Wisconsin, where he remained two years prior to his enlistment on August 26, 1862, as private in Company G, Tenth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. He was mustered into the service August 28 and served with his regiment until 1864, when he was transferred to Company C, Twenty-first Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, and served thusly until the close of the war in 1865. He saw much service and was in many of the sanguine engagements of the War, among them being the battles of Stone River. Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and was with Sherman in his campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta and north through the Carolinas. After being mustered out of the service he returned to Wisconsin and again became engaged in lumbering on the Black river, Morrison creek, and for four years on the Embarrass river. He had three brothers who also took an active part in the Civil War. Adam served in Company C, Thirty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, and was wounded at Cold Harbor Archibald served in Company G, Tenth Regiment, and was wounded at Perryville, Ky., and James served in the Third Wisconsin Cavalry. In 1876 Mr. Carnahan located in section 29, Little Falls Township, and engaged in farming, which he successfully followed until 1892, when he moved into Sparta, where he has since made his home. He is an active Worker in the Republican Party and has been called upon to fill many official positions. He was assessor of Little Falls township two years, served as member of the board of supervisors for many years, and for six years was chairman of the board. As deputy sheriff he served for two years under D. M. Fulmer and two years under Henry Coomes. In the fall of 1899 he was elected sheriff of the county and filled the office during the years 1900 and 1901 and has served as alderman from the second ward for six years. Mr. Carnahan was first married in 1869 to Miss Frances Dunham, of West Salem. Wis., who died in 1873. He was married for the second time on April 1, 1876, to Miss Axa Wilson, daughter of Charles and Adeline (Bartlett) Wilson, natives of New Hampshire, of French and German origin. They came to Monroe county in 1856 and located in Little Falls township, where they were considered among the best class of pioneer settlers. Mrs. Wilson died in 1886 at the age of fifty-four years, and he is still living and active at the age of eighty-three. Mr. and Mrs. Carnahan have one son, Charles C, who is cashier of the First National Bank of Fingle. N. D. Those deceased are Irving, who died in 1893 at the age of seven years, and Estella May, who was the wife of George Hewitt, of Sparta. Her age was twenty-six. She died April 7, 1903. She left one daughter, Estella Berneice Hewitt. Mr. Carnahan is a member of John W. Lynn Post, G. A. R., a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

ANTON CHAPIEWSKY, who lives on his farm of 217 acres in section 1, Portland township, where he was born October 9, 1875, is one of the prosperous and wideawake farmers of Monroe county. He is the son of Albert and Mary (Mashak) Chapiewsky. natives of Poland, who came to the United States over fifty years ago and settled in Portland township, Monroe county, on the farm now occupied by our subject, which at that time was all wild, timbered land. This he cleared, erected buildings and engaged in general farming and raising of standard-bred stock. Bartle Mashak, maternal grandfather of Anton, came to the United States many years ago and was one of the pioneer settlers of La Crosse county, where he spent his life. Joseph Chapiewsky, paternal grandfather of our subject, also came to La Crosse county in an early day and spent the remainder of his life there. Our subject is the fourth child of a family of nine children the others are John, Josephine, wife of Louis Peplinsky, both residents of Portland township Frank, of Cashton Katherine, wife of August Michel, of Portland township Mary, wife of Joseph Wunsch Albert Louis and Clara, wife of Otto Kumm, all reside in La Crosse county. Anton Chapiewsky attended the common schools of his native town, was reared on the farm, where he assisted his father until he was thirty-one years old, when he leased the farm in 1906 and commenced operations on his own account. He was successful and in 1910 purchased the homestead where he is now engaged in up-to-date farming and stock raising. His residence, barns and other outbuildings are well constructed and commodious, and with his other improvements he has a model farm home. On September 13, 1905, he was married to Miss Minnie Kumm, daughter of Carl Kumm, of La Crosse county. They have one child, Esther A., born June 2, 1909. In religious belief Mr. and Mrs. Chapiewsky are members of St. Peter's Catholic church of Middle Ridge.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

D. D. CHENEY, Sparta. Born in the Scioto Valley, Ohio, in 1822. He removed with his father's family to Milwaukee Co., Wis., in the Spring of 1837, where he lived 'till about 1846, when he removed to Dodge County, and engaged in farming, afterward in the grocery trade in Waupun. He went to Marquette County in 1853, and engaged in the mercantile trade at St. Marie afterward removed to Fox Lake. Thence to Black River Falls, and engaged in the mercantile and lumber trade. Came to Sparta in the Spring of 1862, and engaged in the produce and mercantile business. He married his first wife. Miss Martha Ryan, in Waukesha County. His present wife was Mrs. George Derringer, daughter of Paul Schaler, who came to Wisconsin in 1849. Has two children by first marriage, Lydia Ann Kemp and David Wilmot. Mrs Cheney has three children by her first marriage—Mary, Clara and Albert. Mr. Cheney is numbered among the most prominent and influential men of Sparta. Has been a member of the Legislature of Wisconsin, elected in the Fall of 1870. Has served as Chairman of Town and County Board of Supervisors, etc.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

DAVID D. CHENEY.
While not one of the earliest residents of the city of Sparta, David D. Cheney came here early enough to be unseparably connected with the growth and development in all lines of industry which marked the period from the Civil War on. Mr. Cheney was born in Scioto valley, Ohio, January 19, 1822 his father was a native of New Hampshire and the family one of the oldest in the state, his mother being a native of Vermont. The family moved to Scioto valley, Ohio, and from there returned to western New York, from which they later moved to Girard, Erie county, Pa., in 1835 subsequently the father and David D. started west in a one-horse wagon, arriving in Franklin, Milwaukee county, Wis., April 1, 1837, which was the earliest of the pioneer days in Wisconsin. At this time David D. was fifteen years of age, and as no schools had as yet been established in this state his father determined to send him back to New York to get an education. He supplied David with $10 and the latter started his return trip upon arriving in Chicago, from which place he intended to take a steamer to Buffalo, he found that, owing to the lateness of the season, no boats were running he had but two alternatives, to continue on foot or to return to his father in Wisconsin he chose the former and went to Adrian, Mich., where he had an uncle. His entire capital when he left home being only $10, it was necessary for him to work his way, which he did, as it was the season of husking corn and he found plenty to do on the route and in that way paid his expenses. Arriving at Adrian he went by rail to Toledo, where he engaged to work his passage on the steamer George Washington, but owing to an unfavorable wind they could not make the landing until they reached Dunkirk from the latter place he continued to Girard. Pa., on foot. He attended school the following winter. The entire Cheney family eventually located in Waukesha county, where the father made a homestead and where he lived until his death, which occurred in August, 1869, at an age of nearly ninety years. The father was a "Free Will" Baptist and one of the pioneer ministers for over seventy years, yet received no salary for his services. There were ten children in the family, of whom six sons and two daughters all lived to mature years. David Cheney was married to Miss Martha Ryan, of Milwaukee, February 22, 1842. In 1847 he went to Milwaukee and from there to the town of Chester, Dodge county, from which place he removed to St. Marie, Marquette county, thence to Stevens Point and later on to Fox Lake, in Dodge county in 1853. The following year he removed to Black River Falls, returning three years later to Fox Lake later in 1850 he traced his way back to Black River Falls and three years afterward located at Sparta: his wife died on March 16, 1869, and two years afterward, January 1, 1871, he was married to Mrs. George Darringer. He had four children by his first marriage—Emily, who died in infancy Marvin H., who died at the age of ten years Lydia Ann, wife of N. J. Kemp, now of Minneapolis, Minn., and David W., of Sparta.
Mr. Cheney was one of the most successful business men in the City of Sparta, at various times engaging in different enterprises, at one time being employed in the mercantile business and also as a grain dealer and lumber merchant. Later he became interested in banking. He built two large warehouses and a number of dwellings and was one of the most enterprising citizens in the city. In earlier days Mr. Cheney voted with the Abolitionists and subsequently became a Republican, but as issues changed he voted for the party whose principals seemed to him right. He was opposed to the saloon in all its forms. He held various official positions in the gift of the people and in 1870 was elected to the legislature of the state of Wisconsin on the Republican ticket. He served as chairman of the county board for several terms and also as president of the village and village treasurer before Sparta became a city, besides serving on the school board. David D. Cheney was one of the best known and highly respected citizens of Sparta, and socially was one of the most genial and companionable of men, firm in his convictions and positive in his character, yet he was a man of broad and tender sympathies, ever extending aid to the needy and encouraging deserving enterprises, he was generous yet unostentatious. A man of sterling character, right principles, clear headed and progressive, he was a man among that great body of men who have done so much to make the state of Wisconsin what it is. He died at Biloxi, Miss., where he was spending the winter with his family on February 16, 1904, from paralysis.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

MILLIAM CHRISTOPHERSON, for many years a resident of Monroe county, was born in Norway, October 1, 1845, a son of Gilbert and Carolina Christopherson, natives of Norway. They emigrated to America with a family of four children and settled in the Cannon valley, Monroe county, Wisconsin, where the father worked as a farm laborer for some time and in 1872 homesteaded 120 acres of land in Pleasant valley, where he established the family home and still resides. The mother, a devoted wife and an indulgent mother, died in 1911, honored and respected by her wide circle of friends.
Milliam Christopherson is the second child in a family of eleven children born to his parents he attended the district school up to his fourteenth year and assisted in the farm work. He remained with his parents until he was twenty-three, when he and his brother Peter purchased 240 acres. Three years later they divided this farm, subject taking eighty acres for his portion in Pleasant valley, where he and his family reside. In 1910 he purchased forty-six acres additional. He carries on general farming, stock raising and dairying, and keeps his farm well stocked with a good grade of horses, cattle and hogs. He is an enterprising, energetic and progressive man, and takes pride in keeping his farm up-to-date and well supplied with modern laborsaving devices. He was married May 6. 1890, to Miss Sophia Oleson, by whom he has had six children, viz: Inga, a student in Sparta High School, Glenn, Mable. Arthur, Clarence and Everett. Mr. Christopherson with his estimable wife are members of the Lutheran church and he affiliates with the Republican party.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

JOHN CLEMENTS, a progressive farmer of Portland township, is a son of John P. and Rosenia (Hise) Clements, who were natives of France and Holland, respectively. His father came to America with his parents when he was nine years old and settled at that time near Milwaukee, Wis. The mother came to the United States with her parents when she was thirteen years of age, and they also settled near Milwaukee. When a boy the father. John P., was employed at farm work and later came to La Crosse county, where his brother Nicholas was located. He afterward went to Rock county. Wisconsin, making the trip on foot: there he secured employment and saved sufficient means for a start in life, and returning to La Crosse county, purchased a farm, which he afterward sold, and purchased another, which he partly cleared, and again sold out and moved for a time to Chippewa Falls, Wis.. where he was engaged in toting on the Thornapple river for several winters. Some time in the sixties he moved to Portland township and purchased a farm of 160 acres in section 8, now owned and occupied by our subject. At the time he purchased this tract there was but fifteen acres under cultivation. He erected nearly all the buildings now standing, including a solid stone house only two others of a similar kind were built in this township. He cleared ninety acres, and here with his wife, whom he married near Milwaukee, made their home and reared their family and followed the busy life of farming until the death of the father, which occurred December 26, 1910, in his seventythird year. The death of the mother occurred in 1903 at the age of sixty-four years. He was a member of the town board and the school board for several years, was a successful farmer, a liberal and broadminded citizen. Eight children were born to them, viz : Henry, who lives in the town of Leon Mary is the widow of John Gother, of Jefferson township Kate, formerly the wife of John Algray, of Leon, is deceased Rosa, wife of John Taylor, of Ladysmith, Wis. our subject Peter, of Cashton Louisa, and Anna, who is a teacher, are residents of Portland township. John Clements attended the district schools of the neighborhood and was reared on the home farm. He began farming on his own account with his brother, Peter, and together they ran a threshing machine and lumber-saw for ten years. Disposing of his interests to his brother, John took up the management of the home farm in 1907 and has since cleared ten more acres and is conducting successful farming operations. In November, 1905, Mr. Clements was united in marriage with Miss Kate Smenk, daughter of Albert Smenk. of Monroe county. They have a family of four children, viz: Sylvester A., Rosenia M., Clarence P. and Clement F. With their family Mr. and Mrs. Clements attend St. Peter's Catholic church of Middle Ridge.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

REV. E. E. CLOUGH, Presiding Elder of La Crosse District, Sparta. Mr. Clough was born in Homer, Cortland Co., N. Y., in 1840. He resided near Seneca Falls until twenty-two years of age. Became a student of the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, at Lima, N. Y., in 1861. He enlisted in August, 1862, in the 148th Reg. N. Y. Vol. He served twenty months in that regiment was then promoted to a first lieutenancy in the United States Volunteer service, and served as adjutant of the 39th United States C. T., for one year was then promoted to a captaincy, and served nine months. He came to Sparta August, 1856, and engaged in farming one year for the benefit of his health began preaching in North La Crosse in 1867. His pastoral charges since then, have been Chippewa Falls, Lake Street Church. Eau Claire Black River Falls, one year La Crosse First Church, three years then Barstow Street. Eau Claire. Was appointed Presiding Elder of La Crosse District, September, 1879. Married Mary Bladon Howe. They have six children, one son and five daughters. Mr. Clough is an earnest and eloquent preacher, of great energy and labors earnestly and faithfully in the work to which he has devoted his life.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

A. J. COLBURN, retired, Sparta, born in Livingston Co., N. Y., in 1816 removed to Chautauqua County with his parents in 1824 to Battle Creek, Mich, in 1842 came to Wisconsin in 1846, and settled in Janesville thence to Jefferson County in 1851. In 1865, he came to Monroe County. Mr. Colburn learned the trade of a miller. Janesville was but a small town when he settled there he ground the first flour produced in that town. Was engaged in the milling business for many years was elected the Legislature in 1876. He was married, in the State of New York, to Betsey Older, born in Delaware County. They have three children—Webster J. A., general insurance agent at Chattanooga, Tenn. Laura and Winfield Scott. The latter is a miller by trade, and resides at Neillsville, Wis.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

D. V. COLE, proprietor of hotel, P. O. Cataract. Mr. Cole was born in Rutland Co., Vt., in 1828. In the Fall of 1855, he came to La Crosse, Wis., thence to Jackson County. He entered land in Sec. 12, town of Little Falls, the following January, where he lived till the Spring of 1874, he then came to Cataract, kept a meat market here for three years, then engaged in keeping his present hotel. He was married to Alma M. Maxham born in Franklin Co., Vt. He was married in the Fall of 1854. They have three children—Julia M., now Mrs. Charles Walker, Emma and Hattie. Lost one daughter, Fannie P.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

BEN COLE, the genial and popular proprietor of the Park hotel, of Sparta, is a native son of Wisconsin. He was born in Vernon county on June 3, 1861, to Benjamin and Elsie (Wyman) Cole, both natives of New York state, where they were married in 1858, and the same year came to Wisconsin and located on a farm near Baraboo. At the breaking out of the Civil War he was among the first to offer his services in defense of his country and in 1861 enlisted as a private in Company F, Sixteenth Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and after serving with distinction the term of his enlistment he re-enlisted and participated in many important engagements, receiving wounds at Pittsburg Landing and in other battles, from the effects of which he died on his way home. He was a brave soldier, a loyal citizen and enjoyed the friendship and esteem of his community. The maternal grandfather of our subject, Ezra Wyman, was a native of the empire state and came to Wisconsin in an early day, locating in Sauk county, where he followed the trade of a shoemaker, He was a prominent citizen, and with his wife, whose maiden name was Emily Seymour, daughter of a prominent New York family, was highly esteemed by a wide circle of friends.
Ben Cole is the second child and only surviving member of a family of three children. Of the others Rosa and Edgar W. are both deceased, the latter meeting his death in a railroad accident October 1, 1888. in his twenty-second year, our subject received his education in the common schools and at the age of nineteen began railroading, which occupation he followed for ten years, he then engaged in the pump business, selling his wares throughout the counties of Adams, Waushara and Portage, meeting with universal success. His next venture was at farming in Lincoln township, Monroe county, and remained thus engaged for two years and then became operator of the Hotel Warren at Warren. Continuing there for three years, he sold his interests and moved to Black River Falls where he took charge of the Merchants' hotel and remained for the next three years. He then returned to Sparta and in the fall of 1910 became the proprietor of the Hotel Sparta, conducting the last named hotel until December, 1911, when he opened the boxball alley on North Water street. Disposing of this enterprise in 1912, he again embarked in the hotel business, this time as proprietor of the Park hotel at Sparta, March 20, 1912. Mr. Cole is a thorough hotel man and popular with the traveling public.
On April 22, 1885, Mr Cole was united in marriage with Miss Emma J. Townsend. daughter of Louis and Helen (Benton) Townsend, of Union Center, Wis. They have six children, viz: Archie B., Ruby I., Elwin R., Lulu, Glenn and Lester. Mr. Cole has taken a lively interest in fraternal matters -- was president of the local lodge of C. M. B. A. at Valley Junction, leading officer in the local lodge M. W. of A. and Venerable Council. While a resident of Union Center and while at Warren he was local president of the M. B. A. and also a leading officer in the Beavers. He was local president of the Eternal Reserve Association at Ashland while he was a resident of Black River Falls.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

EDWARD C. COLE, who resides on his farm in sections 28 and 83, Adrian township, is the son of Charles Cooper and Celista (Sawyer) Cole natives of Ohio, and New Hampshire, respectively. Charles Cooper Cole was born July 9, 1829, and died September 20, 1876. He was the son of David Cole, a native of the Mohawk valley in New York state, who came to Wisconsin and was one of the first settlers in Adrian township, Monroe county, for whom Cole's valley was named. He was one of the most prominent and well-to-do citizens of Adrian township, and took an active interest in the local affairs of the town. He built what was known as the Yankee tavern, which he ran for several years, and was an experienced and well-known eye specialist. He was an extensive land owner, and sold five forties of land to the county for the Monroe county poor farm, which was located in Adrian township prior to its removal to the town of Sparta. He was honorable and upright in all his dealings and held an enviable position in his community, and was highly respected by all who knew him. After a residence in this county for many years, he in later life removed to Eau Claire county, where he died. Charles Cole, father of our subject, came to Wisconsin in 1866, locating in Adrian township on the farm where our subject now resides, and was married in 1867 to Miss Celistia Sawyer. They were among the prominent settlers of the town, and died honored and respected by the whole community.
Edward C. Cole was born on the farm where he now resides, September 18, 1869. He had one brother, Elmer, who is now deceased. His education was received in the district school of the neighborhood, and after the death of his father he removed with his mother to the city of Tomah, and when a young man was employed in the Central hardware store for a period of ten years, and afterward became a member of the drug firm of Banks & Cole. In 1893 he went to San Antonio, Texas, and remained there until 1898, when he went to Chicago, Ill., and spent two years. In 1903 he returned to Monroe county and the homestead farm, consisting of six forties in Adrian township, where he has since resided, engaged in general farming. He is considered one of the progressive, up-to-date farmers of the town, and besides his farming operations he takes an active interest in the affairs of the town and has been a member of the township board. On June 15, 1901, Mr. Cole was married at Chicago to Miss Sarah McGavin, daughter of James and Mary (Farley) McGavin, natives of Scotland and Ireland, respectively. Mrs. Cole has one brother, ex-Congressman McGavin, who is now a resident of Los Angeles, Cal.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

RICHARD S. W. COLE, farmer, P. O. Jefferson. Born in London, England, in 1826. Came to this country in 1847, with his parents, who settled in Racine Co., Wis. Mr. Cole came to Monroe County, June. 1855, and settled in the town of Jefferson, where he now lives. His wifewas Harriet Rathbun, daughter of Thomas Rathbun. They have nine children, seven sons and two daughters. Mr. Cole has a pleasant and romantic location, which he is improving, and intends to have a pleasant resort. He has one of the most beautiful trout ponds in the Stale of Wisconsin, adjacent to his house. This pond is well stocked with speckled beauties, and the angler for this delicate and beautiful fish, here finds abundant opportunity for his favorite sport.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

JOHN J. COLLINS, Glendale, Monroe county. Wis., was born in the city of Boston, Mass., Oct. 10, 1855. His parents, Michael and Catherine (Dwyer) Collins, were both natives of Ireland and came to the United States in 1845 with their family of two children. He was first employed as a teamster and after a few years spent in the East came to Wisconsin and was in the employ of the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad as traveling freight agent until 1860. In that year he came to Monroe county and purchased 120 acres of land in section 1, Glendale township, and there spent the balance of his life, his death occurring in 1880. He was one of the early settlers of Glendale and experienced the hardships of the pioneer days. He cleared and subdued his wild land and brought it to a good state of cultivation. He was a hard working man and was highly respected in his community. He was a devoted member of the Catholic church and contributed liberally to its support, and in his lifetime helped to organize and build up two or three churches. The mother of our subject is still (1912) living at the advanced age of 100 years. They had a family of seven children, only two of whom are living—John J. and William. One son, James, served three years in the Civil War in the Tenth Wisconsin Regiment.
John J. attended the district school until he was eighteen and after the death of his father lived on the farm with his mother and sister, which he acquired by inheritance and has never left the home place. Since acquiring the farm Mr. Collins has added many valuable improvements. He built a large brick residence in 1902 and a barn in 1896. He keeps his place well stocked with horses and cattle and carries on general farming. For many years he gave his special attention to the raising of sheep, but of late years has turned his attention to dairying and raising Holstein cattle. Mr. Collins has for fourteen years in connection with his farming interest been engaged in the buying and selling of cattle. He is a good judge of stock, has been successful in that line of business, and is one of the public spirited and influential men of his town, and takes a keen interest in all public matters. He organized and was president of the first creamery in Glendale township, run as the Cooperative Creamery Company, which would up its affairs in 1910. He has since helped to organize the Glendale Cooperative Company and is its president. In politics he is a Democrat and an admirer of Senator LaFollette. He was married February 14, 1881, at Union Center. Wis., to Miss Mary Gallagher, daughter of Edward and Kathern Gallagher, of Glendale, who were also natives of Ireland. To Mr. and Mrs. Collins have been born five children—Michael, Edward, John, Mary Pearl and Charles.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

J. D. CONDIT, Sparta, born in Seneca Co., N. Y., in 1821 removed to Yates County, and then to Sparta, July. 1855. He is the present proprietor of the Warner House. Mr. Condit was one of the early prominent business men of Sparta. He early engaged in the drug business, built and stocked the first drug store on the north side of the creek. After two or three years, became associated in that business with Mr. Palmer, under the firm name of Condit & Palmer. He purchased a printing press at Beaver Dam, and, with Milton Montgomery, published the paper known as the Sparta Watchman. He kept the Warner House for many years, which he rebuilt after it was burned. This house he still owns. Mr. Condit has been prominently connected with, the milling business of Sparta. His first wife was Miss Sarah Veazie, who died in Sparta. His present wife was Abigail Percy. In 1862 Mr. Condit raised a company of volunteers, of which he was elected captain. They became a part of the 25th regiment. This regiment was ordered to Minnesota at the time of the Indian massacre in that State. Thence to Columbus, Ky., thence to Vicksburg, Miss., where they took part in the siege of that city. Capt. Condit resigned in 1863.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

HENRY COOME, ex-sheriff of Monroe county, is a native of New York state: he was born in Cayuga county on February 8, 1842. His parents were Robert and Mariah (Harris) Coome, who came from England to America in an early day and located in the above named county. He had learned the carpenter and builder's trade from his father in England, and after coming to the United States followed that occupation in New York for about fifteen years. In 1856 they came West to Wisconsin and settled in Sauk county, where he continued his operation as a carpenter until he secured a farm of wild land, which he subdued and brought to a high state of cultivation here he made his home engaged in general farming until 1867. Purchasing a farm of eighty acres in Monroe county, he moved hither and for the next twenty-five years this was the family home. Disposing of this farm, the father moved to St. Paul, Minn., where he died in 1903 his widow, mother of our subject, survived him five years and passed away in 1908. Both were Christian people and devoted members of the Methodist church, and were among its most generous and faithful supporters. Mr. Coome was a man of genial nature, loyal to his friends, liberal with his money, companionable, a lover of good comradeship and generous to a fault. In politics he was a Whig and strong anti-slavery man.
Mr. Henry Coome received his early education in the district schools of Sauk county, which he supplemented with a course at the Baraboo high school. He remained at home assisting with the farm work until he was twenty-two years of age. when on April 1, 1864, he was married to Miss Eliza Watson at Baraboo, and they had one daughter. Lotta, who is now deceased. In 1867 Mr. Coome came to Monroe county and engaged in general farming and stock raising he later made a specialty of buying stock for the market, and was at one time one of the largest shippers from this county to the Chicago markets. He continued in this line of business until 1886, and then turned his exclusive attention to farming, which he followed until 1897. He is indeed a man of ambition and energy, and worthy of mention in the history of Monroe county he is interested in all public improvements, ever ready to do all in his power for the good of the community, and while not a politician, he has taken an active interest in the affairs of the Republican party, and in 1897 was its candidate for sheriff, being elected over his opponent by a handsome majority. Assuming the duties of that office he moved with his family to Sparta where they remained during his service in office, and upon the expiration of this term he returned to Tomah and retired from active business. Mr. Coome is a man of thorough business qualifications, generous, kind-hearted and popular in the circles in which he moves he is an active member in the Knights of Pythias lodge, has filled all the chairs of the order and is now master of the exchequer is also prominent in the uniform rank of the order and has attended its convocations at various points of the United States. Shortly after assuming the duties of sheriff of the county, he experienced the sad misfortune in the death of Mrs. Coome which occurred in 1898. He was married for the second time to Mrs. Ada Hall, daughter of James Sweet.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

ISAAC W. COOPER, farmer. Sec. 21, P.O. Sparta. Born in Litchfield Co., Conn., in 1820. Was brought up in Connecticut. Married Elizabeth H. Decker, born in Columbia Co., N. Y. They came to Wisconsin in the Spring of 1855 and settled on their present farm. They have seven children—James D., Laura I., Sarah E., John P., Edward E., Albert W. and Minnie E. Lost their oldest daughter. Mr. Cooper's farm contains 200 acres.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

MR. H. L. CRANDALL, of Mason & Crandall, was born in Essex Co., N. Y., in 1834. He came to Wisconsin with his parents in 1851. Family settled in Dodge County. Mr. Crandall came to Tomah in 1861, and engaged in the grain business, etc. He was one of the firm of Kunkell & Co., who built the Tomah mill engaged in business with Mr. Mason in 1878. He was married to Jennie Jordan, native of New York. They have two children, Zubie and Linwood.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

HENRY H. CREMER. farmer, P. O. Cashton, was born in Prussia, on the Rhine, July 25. 1837 where he lived till twenty years of age, when he came to the United States. He left Germany Oct. 8, 1857, reaching New York on Nov. 27th following. His mother died in Germany. His father, with three daughters, came to the United States with him. Two brothers of Mr. Cremer. Matthias and William, had come over in the Spring of that year. Family settled in Pine Hollow town of Jefferson, where father died, August, 1867. Henry, being the youngest son, kept the homestead, which he occupied till 1866. He then sold it to one Anthony Sepmelzer, from Ohio. Henry then built him a residence in Pine Hollow, on Sec. 29. where he lived till 1878, which he then sold. He then visited Iowa, Minnesota and Nebraska looking for a location but finding nothing that suited him better than Monroe County, he came back, and was elected County Clerk in the Fall of 1878. He then located in Sparta, where he remained till the expiration of his office. In Janunry, 1881, he settled on his present farm, which he had purchased on his return from the West. Mr. Cremer has held various town offices: Has been Town Clerk for about twelve years, Chairman of Town Board six years and Justice of the Peace sixteen years. Mr. Cremer is a prominent and intelhgent gentleman, and as his record shows, possesses the confidence and respect of his fellow citizens. His wife was Miss Elizabeth Flock, born in Prussia, and came to this country with her parents in the Spring of 1857. Mr. and Mrs. Cremer have had ten children.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

HENRY H. CREMER is the County Clerk of Monroe county, and is one of its best known and most highly esteemed citizens. He has held various official positions, the duties of which he has discharged in a most satisfactory manner. His connection with the business of the county in an official capacity covers a period of twenty years. He was in 1878 elected to the office of County Clerk and Superintendent of the Poor in Monroe county in 1881-82. In 1882 he was elected to the office of County Treasurer, which position he held from 1883 to 1886 inclusive. After this he re-engaged in farm work. He was a member of the County Board during the years 1887 to 1890, having been chairman of that Board in 1889 and 1890. In 1890 he was elected to the office of County Clerk, which position he now holds. Mr. Cremer was born on the river Rhine, near the famous city of Cologne, on July 25, 1837. Cornelius, the father of our subject, emigrated to America in 1857, when Henry was twenty years of age. The family came directly to Wisconsin, arriving in La Crosse on November 27 of that year. They settled permanently in the town of Jefferson, Monroe county, on February 2, 1858. There the father died, on August 6, 1865, aged eighty-four years. The wife and mother had died in Germany, November 15, 1852. Our subject was one of a family of nine children, six sons and three daughters, all of whom, except the three eldest, came to America. They are all living, so far as is known, at the time of this writing, 1892, except one brother, Matthias, who died in Monroe county, January 15, 1888, leaving a wife and two sons. All of the family living in America are residents of Monroe county excepting one sister, who is in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Mr. Cremer was married to Miss Elizabeth Flock, a daughter of Hermann Flock, who settled in the town of Ridgeville, Monroe county, in the spring of 1857, and died August 15, 1880, leaving three sons and three daughters. Mr. and Mrs. Cremer have had thirteen children, eight of whom are living, four sons and four daughters, viz: Dr. Cornelius H. Cremer, located at Cashton, this county Apolina, the eldest daughter Hermann Dr. Matthias H. Cremer, residing at Cataract, in Monroe county, Peter, Mary, Katie and Cecilia. He affiliates with the Democrats in politics, and he and his family are members of the Catholic Church. His long official career fully indicates the confidence and esteem entertained for him by his fellow citizens, and his cordial and genial disposition and honorable, upright, dealings have endeared him to a large circle of friends. [Biographical History of La Crosse, Monroe and Juneau Counties, Wisconsin 1892]

FRED H. CROSSETTE, one of the enterprising, wide-awake and progressive business men of Tomah, is a native son of Wisconsin. He was born at Ridgeville, Monroe county, December 11, 1859, the son of Z. H. and Jane (Davis) Crossette. The ancestors on the maternal side were natives of Vermont. The father of Fred H. came west to Wisconsin in 1855 and settled in Walworth county, remaining there three years. In 1858 he moved to Monroe county with his family and purchased 150 acres of wild land and immediately set to work clearing and improving his farm. When the Civil War commenced, he was drafted and served in the twenty fifth regiment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry until the close of the war, when he was honorably discharged and returned home. He was a successful farmer, a good citizen and brave soldier, and enjoyed the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. He was a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and for many years a steward in that church. His death occurred in 1879. The mother of our subject raised a family of seven children, four of whom are now living. She was a model housewife, and her womanly graces and domestic virtues made her a worthy helpmeet to her husband. She was a charming lady, a good wife and mother and was highly esteemed by a large circle of friends. She died in 1898. Fred H. Crossette was raised on his father's farm and attended the district schools until he was sixteen years of age, and finished his education in the high school at Tomah. At the age of twenty, he entered the general store of R. B. Dunlap, at Kendall, where he was employed as clerk for nine months. He was next employed at carpenter work which he followed with some degree of success for a time and then went to Barron county and embarked in the furniture and undertaking business. He later returned to Tomah, and with three brothers, put $300 into a portable saw mill, which furnished them with employment during the winter months. From this small beginning, the business grew, and other kinds of woodworking machinery were added and they soon had established a fine plant for sawing, planning and manufacturing sash, doors, blinds and store fixtures. This model plant equipped with modern, up-to-date machinery, was destroyed by fire in 1901 with a loss of $12,000. After prospecting through the county for a location better suited for their business, they finally decided to rebuild on the same spot formerly occupied by them. Mr. Crossette organized a stock company with a capital of $25,000, which was incorporated in 1901 new buildings were erected and equipped and business resumed, which has since met with increased prosperity. To the line of sash, doors, blinds and fixtures, they have recently added the manufacture of silos, also dealers in building material. This is one of the largest and most complete manufacturing plants in the county. Mr. Crossette is widely known for his sterling qualities, both as a business man and in a social way, and is respected by his friends and asociates as a true example of American manhood, energetic, thrifty and upright. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and in political faith, is a Republican. In all matters pertaining to the betterment of his city and county, he gives his hearty support.(History of Monroe County Wisconsin 1912)

PROF. J. H. CUMMINGS, superintendent of schools and principal of High school. Prof. Cummings was born in Worcester, Mass., in 1847. He received his preparatory course at the Worcester High School entered Yale College in 1866, graduating in the class of 1870. He taught one year at Stanford, Conn. He went to Fort Wayne, Ind,, in 1871, and was principal of the high school there for one year. Returned to Hartford, Conn., and engaged in the book publishing business, which he continued for four years. Taught one year at Thompsonville came to Sparta in 1877, and succeeded Prof. O. R. Smith, whose untimely death had left a vacancy in the principalship in the school in Sparta. Prof. Cummings is a thorough scholar, and a successful teacher, and under his supervision, the schools of Sparta continue the high standing and enviable reputation that they acquired while in charge of his lamented predecessor.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)

J. W. CURRAN, Sparta, dealer in agricultural implements, sells Wood's machinery and and Pitt's thresher. Successor to W. H. White, Mr. Curran is a son of John Curran, a native of Pennsylvania, who emigrated to Waukesha Co., Wis., in 1847. Parents had seven children, five sons and two daughters. They removed to Jackson County in 1855, where his father died, May 18, 1881 mother died suddenly in 1865. Mr. Curran was born in Pennsylvania in 1840. He enlisted in Jackson County in the Fall of 1863, in the 5th Wisconsin. Served till the close of the war. Was in Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley was in front of Petersburg during the siege of that ciiy, and was severely wounded after the evacuation, losing his left leg. He came to Sparta after the close of the war, and married Clarissa Mosley, daughter of Daniel T. Mosley. Her parents are natives of the State of New York removed thence to Pennsylvania, came here June, 1854. where they now reside. Mr. Curran was elected Register of Deeds of Monroe Countv in the Fall of 1872 served two terms went to Lincoln, Neb., where he lived about two years located here in present business in the Fall of 1880. Has one son, George William.(History of Northern Wisconsin 1881)


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Throughout America's history, there has always been a movement against lynching. Within this year alone, Congress has finally passed a law that makes lynching a federal crime. The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, located in Alabama, is one of the county's first memorials dedicated to the victims that died from lynchings. In Georgia, there are several lynching memorials commemorate that address approximately 500 or more lynching victims. Our goal is to remember, honor, and celebrate the lives of every person who was murdered by a lynching.

Works Cited

A new lynching memorial rewrites American history. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/lynching-memorial-montgomery-alabama/index.h

Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Map: Georgia lynchings by county, 1880-1968. https://www.ajc.com/news/state--regional/map-georgia-lynchings-county-1880-1968/VgES641Na0mfErITv6jnBN/

Brundage, W. F. (1993). Lynching in the New South Georgia and Virginia, 1880 - 1930. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Ill. Pr. 272-279.

Carney, J. Senate passes bill to make lynching a federal crime. Retrieved from https://thehill.com/homenews/senate/430023-senate-passes-bill-to-make-lynching-a-federal-crime

Database, A. L. (n.d.). All Birth, Marriage & Death results for Felix Creamer. Retrieved from https://www.ancestry.com/search/categories/34/?name=Felix_Creamer&death=1920-9-24&name_x=1

Georgia lynching victims remembered as racial reconciliation efforts expand. Retrieved from https://www.episcopalnewsservice.org/2017/04/11/georgia-lynching-victims-remembered-as-racial-reconciliation-efforts-expand/

GitHub. Lab 3 lynching stats. https://gist.github.com/sqsmith/1b0bc9ba18b14c73e9d0

Inscoe, J. C. (2009). Georgia in black and white: Explorations in the race relations of a southern state, 1865-1950. 14-23.

Johnson, M. A.. Black man found hanged from tree in Greensboro, Georgia. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/black-man-found-hanged-tree-greensboro-georgia

Raper, A. F. (2005). Preface to peasantry: A tale of two black belt counties. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. 23.


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