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Current ARS-22 - History

Current ARS-22 - History


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Current

A stream of water within an ocean having a pronounced directional motion.

(ARS-22: dp. 1,441; 1. 213'6"; b. 39'; dr. 14'8"; s. 16 k.;
cpl. 120; a. 2 40mm.; cl. Diver)

Current (ARS-22) was launched 26 September 1943 by Basalt Rock Co., Inc., Napa, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. E. R. Booker; and commissioned 14 June 1944, Lieutenant Commander J. B. Duff, Jr., USNB, in command.

Clearing San Francisco 6 August 1944, Current sailed on towing duty to Ulithi, arriving 14 October. She carried out local towing and salvage operations from this port until 19 May 1945. Among her most important repair operations were the emergency salvage work performed on Houston (CL-81) and Canberra (CA 70) from 19 October to 14 December 1944, and the valiant fire fighting on Randolph (CV-15) 11 March 1945.

After replenishing in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Current arrived off Okinawa 2 June 1946 for salvage operations aiding the many ships damaged by Japanese air attack, and those sailing in the 3rd and 6th Fleet raids on the Japanese homeland. She served ships of the occupation forces at Okinawa until 6 January 1946 when she sailed by way of Sasebo, Japan to San Francisco, arriving 27 February.

Between 16 April 1946 and 22 July 1947 Current served with JTF-1 on Operation "Crossroads," the atomic weapons tests in the Marshall Islands. She returned to San Diego 23 August 1947 and was placed out of commission in reserve 9 February 1948.

Recommissioned 10 October 1961, Current sailed from Long Beach 7 December and arrived at Pearl Harbor a week later. Following a 1962 tour of duty in the Far East during the Korean War, she carried out an extensive salvage operation on the merchant ship SS Quartette off Midway, saving approximately 2,000 tons of grain between 23 December 1962 and 6 March 1963. During her 1963 tour of duty off Korea, Current refloated the stranded LST-578 at Cheju and in a lengthy and difficult operation salvaged the stern half of SS Cornhusker Mariner which had gone aground off Pusan. Her next Far Eastern tour in 1964 and 1955 included duty with the Taiwan Patrol, visits to Japanese ports, and participation in the "Passage to Freedom" evacuation of refugees from North Vietnam.

After alterations to fit her for duty in the Aretic, current arrived at Seattle, Wash., 26 June 1966. She carried construction equipment and materials into the poorly charted waters along the northern coast of Canada and Alaska from 16 July to 30 September, when she returned to Pearl Harbor for repairs. She voyaged to Kwajalein to inspect the work on mooring buoys between 16 January and 22 February 1956, then arrived in Seattle 29 June to join a convoy carrying supplies to stations of the Distant Early Warning line from 16 July to 10 September, returning to Pearl Harbor for local operations.

During her 1957 deployment to the Western Pacific, Current took part in a mine recovery training exercise in the Marianas; surveyed and blasted a channel in Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea; salvaged aircraft and vessels off Japan; and performed a mercy mission by treating a Japanese diver stricken with the

bends off Honshu. After local operations at Pearl Harbor, she returned to the Far East to operate with destroyers off Japan and with the 7th Fleet in the Taiwan Straits from October 1957 to February 1968.

From July to December 1968 Current operated on diving training duty at Pusan, Korea and salvaged several vessels and aircraft in Japanese waters. In March and April 1969, she carried passengers to Samoa where her divers worked on a sunken hulk, and in November returned to the Far East for duty until March 1960, when she put back to Pearl Harbor for duty in the Hawaiian group for the remainder of the year.

Current received two battle stars for World War II service and three for Korean War service.


Current ARS-22 - History

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ARS Research Chemist Atanu Biswas focuses on the development of sustainable and commercially viable bioplastics made from agricultural materials such as corn and soybean oil. Learn more

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As part of the COVID-19 deployment initiative over 40 ARS scientists and support staff were deployed on lengthy deployments across the country. ARS employees share their stories on why they volunteered and the impact this effort is having on local communities struggling to administer the COVID vaccines. Learn more.

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We’re excited to announce the launch of ARS Scientific Discoveries 2021. Discover the impact of ARS's major scientific achievements and find out how ARS scientists are enriching the lives of people across the planet.

ARS delivers scientific solutions to national and global agricultural challenges. Learn more about ARS research accomplishments in the latest ARS Annual Report on Science.


THE TYPE A KŌ-HYŌTEKI JAPANESE MIDGET SUBMARINE

From: The Lost Submarines of Pearl Harbor:

Much has been written about the construction, characteristics and equipment of the Type A kō-hyōteki. The description that follows is based on Japanese sources, the archival records from the disassembly and analysis of the midget submarines HA-14 and HA-21 in Australia, and HA-19 in the United States, and archaeological documentation of HA-8 in Groton, HA-30 at Kiska, the three-piece mini, and the mini sunk by USS Ward.


Current ARS-22 - History

For sixty-four years, Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 152 has maintained a tradition of excellence, innovation, and leadership in both the aviation community and the United States Marine Corps. Born in the war-torn Western Pacific on March 11, 1942, the squadron matured during the hardships of war and accomplished a wide variety of assigned missions. Now, over six decades later, having served in every major conflict our country has faced, the Sumos of VMGR-152 stand ready at the �??Tip of the Spear�?? to face any challenge.

World War II

VMJ-253 pioneered Trans-oceanic transport in the Marine Corps during World War II. VMJ-253 also became the parent squadron for the joint air transport organization dubbed the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT). Lieutenant Colonel Perry K. Smith, USMC, became the first Commanding Officer of SCAT. By November of 1942, VMJ-253 had supported operations on Guadalcanal and surrounding islands, logging thousands of flight hours.
While on Guadalcanal, VMJ-253 was the first combat transport squadron to land at Henderson Field, bringing Brigadier General Roy S. Geiger and his staff to take command of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Following the Japanese counter attack that forced the Navy to withdraw, VMJ-253 continued to re-supply fuel, ammunition, food, and medical supplies in support of their besieged brethren. The Marines in their R4Ds never wavered in their mission despite being fired upon by Japanese troops lurking near Henderson Field and marauding Zeros in the skies. Until the end of 1942, it was the Marines of VMJ-253 and other SCAT units that solved the logistical problems of Marines and soldiers on Guadalcanal.
Through 1943, VMJ-253 supported operations on Bougainville, New Georgia, Vella Lavella, and numerous islands throughout the Solomon chain. As the island-hopping campaign moved into the Central Pacific in 1944, so did VMJ-253. Detached from SCAT, VMJ-253 officially became a transport squadron and was redesignated VMR-253. VMR-253 was assigned to the Transport Air Group, popularly called TAG, which was the Central Pacific version of SCAT. Continuing the heavy schedule of lifts from Tarawa, VMR-253 sortied to Kwajalein, Roi-Namur, and Eniwetok. In October of 1943, VMR-253 moved to Guam. Working out of Guam, VMR-253 supported actions on Tinian, Saipan, and Peleliu. VMR-253 remained on Guam until the close of the war, and in May 1946, returned to MCAS Miramar.

Post WW II / Korean conflict

From Miramar, VMR-253 moved to MCAS El Toro under Marine Aircraft Group 25 where the aging fleet of R4Ds was replaced with R5Ds. VMR-253 continued its primary mission of moving men and supplies wherever the Marine Corps needed them. After a four-year squadron stand down from 1947 to 1951, VMR-253 reactivated with only six R5C aircraft, 5 officers, and 18 enlisted Marines. By the end of the year it had grown to 58 officers, 184 enlisted, had received 16 new R4Qs, and was ready to go to war once again. From January of 1952 through June of 1953, the squadron logged over 11,000 flight hours, carried 30,170 passengers, and moved 5,213,383 pounds of cargo.

In 1954, the squadron relocated to Itami Air Force Base, Japan and then to Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan. From Japan, VMR-253 conducted the bulk of Marine air transport in the Pacific for nearly ten years. On February 1, 1962, the famous Lockheed KC-130F Hercules joined Marine aviation in the Pacific. With its ability to refuel fighter and attack aircraft, VMR-253 was redesignated Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 152 (VMGR-152), and the squadron�??s primary mission became aerial refueling.
Less than a year after receiving the Hercules aircraft, the pilots and Marines of VMGR-152 were called upon to support U.S. Army advisors in the latest hot spot, Indo-China. This deployment gave the squadron valuable experience in the employment of the Battle Herc that would soon pay off.

Beginning in 1965, with increasing U.S. involvement in Vietnam, detachments from VMGR-152 were deployed in country with Marine Amphibious Forces (MAF) to support F-4s and A-4s used by Marine tactical squadrons. To better support the detachments in Vietnam, the squadron relocated to Okinawa, Japan. By October, the squadron was flying 900 missions a month and continued this high tempo of operations well into 1967.
From 1967 to 1975, the bulk of VMGR-152�??s missions were directly in support of action in Southeast Asia. Concurrently, the squadron was establishing itself as a mainstay in the Western Pacific. VMGR-152 conducted countless trans-Pacific (TRANSPAC) missions, which involved the refueling of entire squadrons of fighter and attack aircraft as they crossed the Pacific on deployment. VMGR-152 also participated in a myriad of exercises and the movement of tons of cargo and thousands of troops, securing VMGR-152�??s tenure in WESTPAC.

1980s - 1990s

During the 1980ï's, larger U.S. Air Force tankers specifically designated for the strategic movement and refueling of aircraft relieved VMGR-152 of its TRANSPAC mission. This allowed the squadron to explore a more tactical employment of the KC-130 in intra-theater refueling and transport operations, and employ a more effective use of the aircraft and its personnel in a tactical environment. In 1987, VMGR-152 became the first PCS (permanent change of station) aircraft squadron on Marine Corps Air Station Futenma.
Since the early 1990s, VMGR-152 has experienced a steady increase in the number of missions flown. In June 1993, the squadron acquired five KC-130Rs, which provided the squadron with a significant increase in aircraft range and added to its effectiveness in refueling and transport operations.
In January 1995, VMGR-152 joined Special Purpose MAGTF in support of Operation United Shield, the final withdrawal of all UNOSOM forces from Somalia.

In November and December 2004, VMGR-152 participated in Joint Task Force 535, the Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief mission in the Republic of the Philippines after several tropical storms and typhoons struck the island of Luzon. In the wake of the December 26, 2004 earthquake off the coast of Indonesia, and subsequent widespread tsunami in the Indian Ocean region, VMGR-152 deployed aircraft and personnel to Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia in support of Operation Unified Assistance.
The Sumos were again called upon this year to provide Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief (HADR) to people in need. When mudslides devastated the small village of Southern Leyete, Philippines in February of 2006 and when an earthquake in Yogyakarta, Indonesia killed nearly 6,000 people in May of 2006, the Sumos were among the first to arrive with valuable medical aid and supplies. Due to the Sumos flexibility and readiness, US forces were able to play a significant role in aiding the international community and saving countless lives with their operations.

The Marines of VMGR-152 have consistently employed the KC-130 Hercules in a safe and efficient manner. By invariably demonstrating the ability to balance mission accomplishment with safety, the squadron has earned numerous unit citations and awards. These awards include the CNO Aviation Safety Award for 1992, 1993, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005 the MCAA Commandant's Aviation Efficiency Trophy for 1992 and 1993 the National Defense Transportation Unit Award for 1993, 1995, and 2000 and the MCAA Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron of the Year Award for 1994, 2001 and 2006. The most noteworthy achievement occurred in April 2007, when the Sumos exceeded 260,000 mishap-free flight hours. VMGR-152 continues to play an invaluable role within III MEF and the U.S. Marine Corps. Through safety, the Sumos of VMGR-152 perpetually live up to their squadron's reputation as the

  • Adamo, Pellegrino, Sgt , (1998-2003)
  • Adams, Dennis, Sgt , (1967-1971)
  • Adams, Jake, Cpl , (2005-Present)
  • Adams, Louie Don, LCpl , (1960-1964)
  • Adkins, William, MSgt , (1963-1985)
  • Aguilar, Angelo, CWO2 , (1977-1998)
  • Akins, Terry, Cpl , (1978-1982)
  • Alcorn, Tyrone, Sgt , (2006-Present)
    , (1963-1967)
    , (1988-1993)
  • Allen, Willam, Sgt , (1969-1973)
    , (1952-1966)
  • Alvarado, Don, GySgt , (1993-2007)
  • Anderson, Douglas, Cpl , (1982-1986)
  • Anderson, Matthew, Sgt , (1987-1993)
  • Anderson, Mike, SSgt , (1979-1988)
  • Anderson, Raymond, Sgt , (1963-1967)
  • Arant, Rob, Maj , (1994-2020)
  • Arce, Frank, Sgt , (1967-1971)
    , (1957-1987)
  • Arrieta, Rodolfo, SgtMaj , (1984-Present)
  • Arriola, David, Cpl , (1997-2005)
  • [Name Withheld] , (1987-1999)
  • Asbridge, Kenneth, LtCol , (1991-2013)
  • Ashenbramer, Donald, MGySgt , (1955-1988)
  • Augurson, Michelle, MSgt , (1990-Present)
  • Babb, Joseph, Sgt , (1972-1976)
  • Bachman, Todd, Sgt , (1986-1994)
    , (1942-1954)
  • Badrie, Riyadh, HM2 , (2001-Present)
    , (2016-2018)
  • Bales, William, Cpl , (1974-1978)
  • Ball, Lisa, Sgt , (1997-2005)
    , (1972-1995)
  • Bandani, Ahmad, LtCol , (1989-2010)
    , (1976-1998)
  • Barajas, Marcos, Sgt , (1995-2001)
  • Bardash, Robert, SSgt , (1996-2007)
  • Barnes, Joe, Sgt , (1993-1997)
  • Barnes, Kevin, Sgt , (2001-2008)
  • Barnett, Brad, Cpl , (1995-2001)
  • Barnett, Bradford, MSgt , (1988-2014)
  • Barra, Cameron, Cpl , (2017-Present)
  • Barton, Richard, SSgt , (1982-1991)
  • Basile, Robert (Bob), Cpl , (1966-1970)
    , (1966-1968)
  • Bays, Donald, MSgt , (1986-2007)
    , (1950-1965)
  • Beattie, Robert, Sgt , (1981-1993)
  • Beauchamp, William, Sgt , (1996-2005)
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Guadalcanal Campaign (1942-43) (Aug 1942 - Feb 1943)
    The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Northern Solomon Islands Campaign (1943-44)/New Georgia Group Operation (Jun 1943 - Oct 1943)
    This operation was fought during the Pacific war on this group of islands situated in the central So.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Northern Solomon Islands Campaign (1943-44)/Battle of Vella Lavella (Aug 1943 - Oct 1943)
    The Battle of Vella Lavella was fought from 15 August &ndash 9 October 1943 between Japan and the A.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Central Pacific Campaign (1941-43)/Gilbert Islands Operation (1943)/Battle of Tarawa (Nov 1943 - Nov 1943)
    The Battle of Tarawa (US code name Operation Galvanic) was a battle in the Pacific Theater of World .
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Northern Solomon Islands Campaign (1943-44)/Battle of Bougainville (Nov 1943 - Jan 1944)
    After New Georgia, the next major operation was an invasion of the island of Bougainville, which was.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Eastern Mandates Campaign (1944)/Operation Flintlock/Battle of Kwajalein Atoll (Jan 1944 - Feb 1944)
    The Battle of Kwajalein was fought as part of the Pacific campaign of World War II. It took place fr.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Eastern Mandates Campaign (1944)/Operation Flintlock/Battle of Roi-Namur Island (Feb 1944 - Feb 1944)
    Japan took over in 1914 and colonised the Marshalls extensively, developing and fortifying large bas.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Eastern Mandates Campaign (1944)/Operation Flintlock/Battle of Eniwetok Atoll (Feb 1944 - Feb 1944)
    The Battle of Eniwetok was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought between 17 Febru.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Northern Solomon Islands Campaign (1943-44)/Marianas Operation /Battle of Tinian (1944) (Jul 1944 - Aug 1944)
    The 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions landed on 24 July 1944, supported by naval bombardment and artiller.
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Northern Solomon Islands Campaign (1943-44)/Marianas Operation /Battle of Guam (1944) (Jul 1944 - Aug 1944)
    Guam, ringed by reefs, cliffs, and heavy surf, presents a formidable challenge for an attacker. But .
  • World War II/Asiatic-Pacific Theater/Western Pacific Campaign (1944-45)/Battle of Peleliu (Sep 1944 - Oct 1944)
    The Battle of Peleliu, codenamed Operation Stalemate II, was fought between the United States and th.
  • Korean War/Korea, Summer-Fall 1952 (May 1952 - Nov 1952)
    In May the enemy became bolder, increasing his probing attacks and patrols, intensifying his artille.
  • Korean War/Third Korean Winter (1952-53) (Dec 1952 - Apr 1953)
    Third Korean Winter, 1 December 1952 - 30 April 1953. Meanwhile the armistice talks had stalled. Dis.
  • Vietnam War/Defense Campaign (1965) (Mar 1965 - Dec 1965)
    This campaign was 8 March to 24 December 1965. During this campaign the U.S. objective was to hold o.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Campaign (1965-66) (Dec 1965 - Jun 1966)
    This campaign was from 25 December 1965 to 30 June 1966. United States operations after 1 July 1966 .
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase II Campaign (1966-67) (Jul 1966 - May 1967)
    This campaign was from 1 July 1966 to 31 May 1967. United States operations after 1 July 1966 were a.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase III Campaign (1967-68) (Jun 1967 - Jan 1968)
    This campaign was from 1 June 1967 to 29 January 1968.The conflict in South Vietnam remains basicall.
  • Vietnam War/Tet Counteroffensive Campaign (1968) (Jan 1968 - Apr 1968)
    This campaign was from 30 January to 1 April 1968. On 29 January 1968 the Allies began the Tet-lunar.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase IV Campaign (1968) (Apr 1968 - Aug 1968)
    This campaign was from 2 April to 30 June 1968. During this period friendly forces conducted a numbe.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase V Campaign (1968) (Jul 1968 - Nov 1968)
    This campaign was from 1 July to 1 November 1968. During this period a country-wide effort was begun.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase VI Campaign (1968-69) (Nov 1968 - Feb 1969)
    This campaign was from 2 November 1968 to 22 February 1969. In November 1968 the South Vietnam gover.
  • Vietnam War/Tet 69 Counteroffensive Campaign (1969) (Feb 1969 - Jun 1969)
    This campaign was from 23 February to 8 June 1969. From Tet 1969 through the month of June, th.
  • Vietnam War/Summer-Fall 1969 Campaign (Jun 1969 - Oct 1969)
    This campaign was from 9 June to 31 October 1969. During the summer and fall of 1969, conduct of ope.
  • Vietnam War/Winter-Spring 1970 Campaign (Nov 1969 - Apr 1970)
    This campaign was from 1 November 1969 to 30 April 1970. An increase in enemy-initiated attacks, at .
  • Vietnam War/Sanctuary Counteroffensive Campaign (1970) (May 1970 - Jun 1970)
    This campaign was from 1 May to 30 June 1970. This campaign was mainly concerned with the Allied inc.
  • Vietnam War/Counteroffensive Phase VII Campaign (1970-71) (Jul 1970 - Jun 1971)
    This campaign was from 1 Jul 1970 to 30 June 1971. Fighting continued in Cambodia during early Febru.
  • Vietnam War/Consolidation I Campaign (1971) (Jul 1971 - Nov 1971)
    This campaign was from 1 July to 30 November 1971. This period witnessed additional progress i.
  • Vietnam War/Consolidation II Campaign (1971-72) (Dec 1971 - Mar 1972)
    This campaign was from 1 December 1971 to 29 March 1972.. The U.S. continued to reduce its ground pr.
  • Vietnam War/Vietnam Cease-fire Campaign (1972-73) (Mar 1972 - Jan 1973)
    This campaign was from 30 March 1972 to 28 January 1973. On 30 March 1972 the North Vietnamese.
  • Operation Homecoming (Vietnam) (Jan 1973 - Apr 1973)
    Operation Homecoming was a series of diplomatic negotiations that in January 1973 made possible the .
  • Luzon earthquake Relief (Philippines) (Jul 1990 - Sep 1990)
    The 1990 Luzon earthquake occurred on July 16 at 4:26 p.m. local time on the densely populated islan.
  • Operation United Shield (Somalia) (Jan 1995 - Mar 1995)
    Operation United Shield was the codename of a military operation, conducted 9 January to 3 March 199.
  • Typhoon Nanmadol Relief 2004 (Jan 2004 - Dec 2004)
    Disaster relief in Quezon Province, RP, in late December 2004 after Typhoon Nanmadol washed out road.
  • Operation Unified Assistance (Indonesia) (Dec 2004 - Feb 2005)
    Operation Unified Assistance is the name of the United States military's response to the 2004 In.
  • Training Exercise - Pitch Black '08 (Jun 2008 - Jul 2008)
    Exercise Pitch Black is a biennial warfare exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
  • Operation Tomodachi (Japan) (Mar 2011 - May 2011)
    Operation Tomodachi (literally "Operation Friend(s)") was a United States Armed Forces (es.
  • OEF-Afghanistan/Consolidation III (2009 - 2011) (Dec 2009 - Jun 2011)
    War on Terrorism
  • OEF-Afghanistan/Transition I (2011-14) (Jul 2011 - Dec 2014)
    2012: Strategic Agreement
    Taliban attacks continued at the same rate as they did in 2011, rem.

OEF-Afghanistan/Transition I (2011-14)
2012: Strategic Agreement
Taliban attacks continued at the same rate as they did in 2011, remaining around 28,000 Taliban "enemy initiated" attacks.

Reformation of the . More United Front (Northern Alliance)
Ahmad Zia Massoud (left), then as Vice President of Afghanistan, shaking hands with a U.S. Provincial Reconstruction Team at the ceremony for a new road. He is now the chairman of the National Front of Afghanistan
In late 2011 the National Front of Afghanistan (NFA) was created by Ahmad Zia Massoud, Abdul Rashid Dostum and Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq in what many analysts have described as a reformation of the military wing of the United Front (Northern Alliance) to oppose a return of the Taliban to power. Meanwhile, much of the political wing reunited under the National Coalition of Afghanistan led by Abdullah Abdullah becoming the main democratic opposition movement in the Afghan parliament. Former head of intelligence Amrullah Saleh has created a new movement, Basej-i Milli (Afghanistan Green Trend), with support among the youth mobilizing about 10,000 people in an anti-Taliban demonstration in Kabul in May 2011.

In January 2012, the National Front of Afghanistan raised concerns about the possibility of a secret deal between the US, Pakistan and the Taliban during a widely publicized meeting in Berlin. U.S. Congressman Louie Gohmert wrote, "These leaders who fought with embedded Special Forces to initially defeat the Taliban represent over 60-percent of the Afghan people, yet are being entirely disregarded by the Obama and Karzai Administrations in negotiations." After the meeting with US congressmen in Berlin the National Front signed a joint declaration stating among other things:

"We firmly believe that any negotiation with the Taliban can only be acceptable, and therefore effective, if all parties to the conflict are involved in the process. The present form of discussions with the Taliban is flawed, as it excludes anti-Taliban Afghans. It must be recalled that the Taliban extremists and their Al-Qaeda supporters were defeated by Afghans resisting extremism with minimal human embedded support from the United States and International community. The present negotiations with the Taliban fail to take into account the risks, sacrifices and legitimate interests of the Afghans who ended the brutal oppression of all Afghans.

&mdashNational Front Berlin Statement, January 2012

High-profile U.S. military incidents

U.S. Army soldiers prepare to conduct security checks near the Pakistan border, February 2012
Beginning in January 2012 incidents involving US troops occurred which were described by The Sydney Morning Herald as "a series of damaging incidents and disclosures involving US troops in Afghanistan [&hellip]". These incidents created fractures in the partnership between Afghanistan and ISAF, raised the question whether discipline within U.S. troops was breaking down, undermined "the image of foreign forces in a country where there is already deep resentment owing to civilian deaths and a perception among many Afghans that US troops lack respect for Afghan culture and people" and strained the relations between Afghanistan and the United States. Besides an incident involving US troops who posed with body parts of dead insurgents and an video apparently showing a US helicopter crew singing "Bye-bye Miss American Pie" before blasting a group of Afghan men with a Hellfire missile these "high-profile U.S. military incidents in Afghanistan" also included the 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests and the Panjwai shooting spree.

Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement

On 2 May 2012, Presidents Karzai and Obama signed a strategic partnership agreement between the two countries, after the US president had arrived unanounced in Kabul on the first anniversary of Osama bin Laden's death. The U.S.-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, officially entitled the "Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America", provides the long-term framework for the two countries' relationship after the drawdown of U.S. forces. The Strategic Partnership Agreement went into effect on 4 July 2012, according to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on 8 July 2012 at the Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan. On 7 July 2012, as part of the agreement, the U.S. designated Afghanistan a major non-NATO ally after Karzai and Clinton met in Kabul. On 11 November 2012, as part of the agreement, the two countries launched negotiations for a bilateral security agreement.

NATO Chicago Summit: Troops withdrawal and long-term presence
Further information: 2012 Chicago Summit, 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan and Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan
On 21 May 2012 the leaders of NATO-member countries endorsed an exit strategy during the NATO Summit.[26] ISAF Forces would transfer command of all combat missions to Afghan forces by the middle of 2013, while shifting from combat to advising, training and assisting Afghan security forces. Most of the 130,000 ISAF troops would depart by the end of December 2014. A new NATO mission would then assume the support role.

2013: Withdrawal
Karzai&ndashObama meeting
Karzai visited the U.S. in January 2012. At the time the U.S. stated its openness to withdrawing all of its troops by the end of 2014.[314] On 11 January 2012 Karzai and Obama agreed to transfer combat operations from NATO to Afghan forces by spring 2013 rather than summer 2013.

"What's going to happen this spring is that Afghans will be in the lead throughout the country", Obama said. "They [ISAF forces] will still be fighting alongside Afghan troops. We will be in a training, assisting, advising role." Obama added He also stated the reason of the withdrawals that "We achieved our central goal, or have come very close. which is to de-capacitate al-Qaeda, to dismantle them, to make sure that they can't attack us again," .

Obama also stated that he would determine the pace of troop withdrawal after consultations with commanders. He added that any U.S. mission beyond 2014 would focus solely on counterterrorism operations and training. Obama insisted that a continuing presence must include an immunity agreement in which US troops are not subjected to Afghan law. "I can go to the Afghan people and argue for immunity for U.S. troops in Afghanistan in a way that Afghan sovereignty will not be compromised, in a way that Afghan law will not be compromised," Karzai replied.

Both leaders agreed that the United States would transfer Afghan prisoners and prisons to the Afghan government and withdraw troops from Afghan villages in spring 2013. "The international forces, the American forces, will be no longer present in the villages, that it will be the task of the Afghan forces to provide for the Afghan people in security and protection," the Afghan president said.

Security transfer
On 18 June 2013 the transfer of security responsibilities was completed. The last step was to transfer control of 95 remaining districts. Karzai said, "When people see security has been transferred to Afghans, they support the army and police more than before." NATO leader Rasmussen said that Afghan forces were completing a five-stage transition process that began in March 2011. "They are doing so with remarkable resolve," he said. "Ten years ago, there were no Afghan national security forces &hellip now you have 350,000 Afghan troops and police." ISAF remained slated to end its mission by the end of 2014. Some 100,000 ISAF forces remained in the country.

U.S.&ndashAfghanistan Bilateral Security agreement
As part of the U.S.&ndashAfghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement the United States and Afghanistan reached an agreement on a bilateral security agreement, on 20 November 2013. If approved, the agreement would allow the U.S. to deploy military advisors to train and equip Afghan security forces, along with U.S. special-operations troops for anti-terrorism missions against Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups. President Obama will determine the size of the force. The bilateral security agreement was signed on September 30, 2014.

2014: Withdrawal continues and the insurgency increases
After 2013, Afghanistan has been shaken hard with suicide bombings by the Taliban. A clear example of this is a bombing of a Lebanese restaurant in the Wazir Akbar Khan area of Kabul on 18 February 2014. Among the dead in this attack was UN staff and the owner of the restaurant, who died protecting his business. 21 people altogether were killed. Meanwhile, the withdrawal continues with 200 more US troops alone coming home. The UK have halved their force and are slowing withdrawing with all but two bases being closed down. On 20 March 2014, more than 4 weeks after a bomb in a military bus by the Taliban rocked the city once again, a raid on the Serena hotel in Kabul by the Taliban resulted in the deaths of 9 people, including the 4 perpetrators. The attack came just 8 days after Swedish radio journalist Nils Horner was shot dead by the Taliban.

In March 2014, The Christian Science Monitor reported, "The good news is that so far, Russia has shown no inclination to use the NDN [Northern Distribution Network, key supply line to Afghanistan that runs through Russia] as leverage in the wake of US retaliation for its troop movements in Crimea."

On 9 June 2014 a coalition air strike mistakenly killed five U.S. troops, an Afghan National Army member and an interpreter in Zabul Province.

On 5 August 2014, a gunman in an Afghan military uniform opened fire on a number of U.S., foreign and Afghan soldiers, killing a U.S. general, Harold J. Greene and wounding about 15 officers and soldiers including a German brigadier general and a large number of U.S. soldiers at Camp Qargha, a training base west of Kabul.

Two longterm security pacts, the Bilaterial Security agreement between Afghanistan and the United States of America and the NATO Status of Forces Agreement betwenn NATO and Afghanistan, were signed on September 30, 2014. Both pacts lay out the framework for the foreign troop involvement in Afghnistan after the year 2014.

After 13 years Britain and the United States officially ended their combat operation in Afghanistan on October 26, 2014. On that day Britain handed over its last base in Afghanistan, Camp Bastion, while the United States handed over its last base, Camp Leatherneck, both based in the southern province of Helmand, to Afghan forces.

Operation Tomodachi (Japan)
Operation Tomodachi (literally "Operation Friend(s)") was a United States Armed Forces (especially U.S. Forces Japan) assistance operation to support Japan in disaster relief following the 2 . More 011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The operation took place from 12 March to 4 May 2011 involved 24,000 U.S. servicemembers, 189 aircraft, and 24 naval ships and cost $90 million.
The United States Navy quickly responded to provide aid.[3] Aircraft from three FLSW (Fleet logistic Support Wing) squadrons were in theatre during the earthquake at Naval Air Facility Atsugi. VR-62's C-130 delivered 127 tons of material to aid in relief efforts and VR-58's C-40 delivered 366,000 pounds of food and water and 1400 passengers. VR-52's aircrew and maintenance detachment moved Navy patrol and helicopter units directly involved with the search and rescue of survivors in addition to relocating 185 Navy personnel and dependents from the Atsugi-based Carrier Air Group Five to Guam. During this time, the Taskmasters were airborne for 19 out of 26 hours transporting personnel and humanitarian relief supplies. The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) and its battle group were moved to the east coast of Honshu. As well as the group's own helicopters, the Ronald Reagan served as a refueling platform for Japan Self-Defense Forces helicopters. C-2 Greyhound aircraft assigned to VRC-30 and attached to CVW-14 and CVW-5 ferried over 100 tons of food, water, blankets, clothing, and medical supplies from NAF Atsugi to USS Ronald Reagan for distribution by helicopter to local sites in Japan.

Yokota Air Base was used in the aftermath of the earthquake as a landing field for commercial flights as Tokyo Narita Airport was closed. The Navy helicopters based at Naval Air Facility Atsugi and elsewhere were made available for search and rescue immediately after the tsunami, including searching off-shore debris fields and later assisted with food drops P-3 Orion aircraft were used to do damage surveys. Amphibious landing craft and utility landing craft (LCUs) were used to deploy U.S and Japanese troops and supplies to areas where docks were damaged. Japan electrical company trucks were moved by U.S. LCUs from USS Essex (LHD-2), notably to Oshima Island.

The destroyers USS McCampbell (DDG-85) and USS Curtis Wilbur (DDG-54), which were off the Peninsula at the time of the earthquake, and their helicopters were made available for search and rescue. The landing ships USS Essex (LHD-2) and USS Germantown (LSD-42), with the embarked 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit from Okinawa, were moved from the Sea of Japan to the east coast of Japan.

USS Tortuga (LSD-46), an amphibious dock ship, embarked two MH-53E Heavy Lift Helicopters assigned to HM-14 DET 1 stationed in Pohang South Korea. The entire DET was on board Tortuga less than 18 hours after the earthquake and tsunami hit. Tortuga transported 800 Japanese civil defense workers from Hokkaido to Honshu with 90 vehicles.[12][not specific enough to verify]

Military Sealift Command ships also took part in the operation by transferring relief supplies and fuel to other supporting ships. The ships that took part in the operation were USNS Carl Brashear (T-AKE 7), USNS Pecos (T-AO 197),USNS Rappahannock (T-AO 204), USNS Matthew Perry (T-AKE 9), USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10).

USNS Safeguard (T-ARS-50), which was stationed at U.S. Fleet Activities Sasebo, arrived at Hachinohe, Japan with Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 5 and Underwater Construction Team 2 to clear wreckage from a local commercial channel.

During the operation the 7th Fleet flew 160 search and relief sorties for 1,100 flight hours, delivered 260 tons of relief supplies, and helped clear the ports of Hachinohe, Aomori, Miyako, Iwate, and Kesennuma, Miyagi.

In total 130 aircraft, 12,510 personnel and over 16 American naval ships took part in Operation Tomodachi, including USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), USS Chancellorsville (CG-62), USS Cowpens (CG-63), USS Shiloh (CG-67), USS John S. McCain (DDG-56), USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62), USS McCampbell (DDG-85), USS Preble (DDG-88), USS Mustin (DDG-89), USS Germantown (LSD-42), USS Tortuga (LSD-46), USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49), USS Essex (LHD-2), USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19), USNS Safeguard (T-ARS-50).

Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps facilities in Japan escaped major damage, with no reported casualties. This intact infrastructure allowed Marines from III Marine Expeditionary Force and Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler to mobilize aid quickly.

Marines based at Marine Corps Air Station Futenma moved command and control teams and systems to NAF Atsugi. Eight KC-130Js from VMGR-152 and eight CH-46E and four CH-53 Super Stallions transport helicopters from HMM-265, all from MCAS Futenma, were made available to transport rescue teams and equipment, as well as provide search and rescue.

The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit responded to Northern Japan from Malaysia and Indonesia, where the unit was conducting Theater Security Cooperation exercises. The 31st MEU delivered relief supplies to five cities, one island and one Japanese ship. More than 164,000 pounds of food and relief supplies were delivered, along with thousands of gallons of water. Elements of the 31st MEU, including Combat Logistics Battalion 31, 2nd Battalion 5th Marines went ashore on Oshima Island to deliver critical supplies and assist in debris removal.

MV Westpac Express, a civil-registered fast ferry chartered by the Marine Corps, was made available to transport equipment from Okinawa to Honshu. Westpac Express made two sorties in support of Operation Tomodachi. The ship moved 450 tons of cargo, including 7-ton trucks, fuel tankers, generators and water tanks from Okinawa to Iwakuni, Japan, arriving 15 March. On 20 March, Westpac Express loaded 226 pallets of bottled water at Pohang, ROK, off-loading at Iwakuni the next day.

Air Force
A United States Air Force KC-135 Stratotanker arrived at Misawa Air Base on 14 March with the first batch of relief workers and 50 civil engineers from Kadena Air Base.

A USAF C-17 is checked for radiation at Yokota after a relief flight.
Two C-17A Globemaster cargo aircraft from Joint Base Lewis-McChord were made available to transport rescue teams and equipment. A Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle was deployed from Guam for damage assessments.

Air base
Yokota Air Base is the hub for air operations from which cleanup crews were dispatched to clean up Sendai airport. At a Town Hall meeting, the Commander of the 374th Air Wing USAF presented an overview of joint forces operations in support of the Japanese and emphasized teamwork between various players. He stated that "we are very blessed" to be in the nation of Japan because it has a highly sophisticated set of technologies to minimize the damage but that the personnel, logistic and financing problems were formidable.

He repeatedly asserted that the situation is "eminently controllable" in part due to highly experienced personnel available for various contingencies. US military personnel stationed at the Air Base expressed interest in making cash donations &ndash in dollars or yen &ndash to the American Red Cross and other organizations working in the Japanese relief effort.


Beach, William (Bill) J

My first recollection of Bethpage was when I went to work for Grumman Aircraft, as a Rivet Bucker for "Rosie the Riveter", on the F4F "Wildcat" in 1944 at the age of 16. I remember how dark and desolete it was out here at 5:30 AM on my way to work at Plant #2 from my home in Franklin Square. I took the Hempstead Trunpike where there was nothing but open fields, and after I passed the Hempstead line and Meadowbrook Hospital it was very dark.

I went into the Navy in 1945.

I returned to Bethpage 1957 with my wife Julia and son John (18 months old), and bought a house on Thomas Avenue under the G. I. Bill. Daughters Bonnie was born 1957, Susan was born in 1961, and son Thomas born in 1965.

I was a Patrolman in the NCPD. In 1970 I became the Commanding Officer of Detectives at the Eight Precinct in Bethpage. During my tenure we investigated many criminal cases in and around Bethpage. Two of the most infamous cases was the extensive damage to the stained glass windows at St. Martin of Tours R. C. Church on Central Avenue. The other was the attempt to blow up the model of the Grumman LEM which was on display in the town parking lot near the railroad station.

Good neighbors like Vera and Chappy Mirando.

Mr. Greco the railroad gateman on Broadway. I do not remember the names of the gatemen at Stewart Avenue or Central Avenue.

How upset we all were when they tore up all the beautiful trees along Stewart Avenue to widen the road. It was said, "why did they do that, Stewart Avenue goes from nowhere to nowhere."

The good times at Anselmi's on Broadway, and we always talked about having dinner at the Beau Sejour, but never did. The best glass of beer in town was at Duebels (corner of Stewart Avenue and Central Avenue), and at the 5 Corners at Stewart Avenue and Hempstead Turnpike.

All the children in our neighborhood, on Thomas Avenue, were kept off the sidewalks every weekday from 4:00 to 4:15. That was the time of the daily exodus from Grumman.

Standing at the fence on Central Avenue with my children watching the planes landing on the Grumman runway, particularly the Navy planes with the big radar domes on top, and the loud roar as they tested the airplane engines on the runway.

The hours my mother spent sitting at Railroad Avenue and 10th Street with the children watching the steam engines go by. The reward for a wave was a toot from the train whistle.

Senstacken's Bakery after Sunday Services at St. Paul's Lutheran Church on Stewart Avenue.

Pastor James Taylor of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, an outstanding man.

The Grumman Yankees, Grumman's fast pitch softball team which won the National Softball Championship on numerous occasions. Roy Stevenson, Grumman's world class softball pitcher who is enshrined in the Softball Hall of Fame.

Sadly, the loss of my wife in 1980 at the age of 48 to cancer.

(submitted to the CPHS in 9/01 by Bill Beach)

MILITARY SERVICE
William John Beach Rate: EN2 SS. 1945-1949 USN - 1949-1953 USNR

1946 served aboard USS Current ARS 22-Member of Joint Task Force 1, which conducted Atomic Bomb Tests ("OPERATION CROSSROADS") at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, South Pacific. At both "Able" and "Baker" Blasts which were detonated on July 1, 1946 ("Able") and on July 25, 1946 ("Baker")

1947-1949 served aboard the USS Catfish SS339. Member of Submarine Division 15 Pacific Flet. Conducted numerous Cold War Submarine Patrols, various areas Pacific Ocean.

WW2 Victory Medal Pacific Theatre Ribbon American Campaign Ribbon Good Conduct Medal

Member: US Atomic War Veterans US Submarine Veterans - Long Island Base American Legion - Nassau Police Post

THE BEACHES AND BETHPAGE - Submitted by William Beach 12/3/13 - Story published in CPHS January/February 2014 Newsletter

The Beaches were responsible for recovering and paid the cost of refurbishing a long forgotten Bronze WWII Memorial Plaque for Robert Damm and Raymond E. Caffrey, two young men from Bethpage who were killed in WWII. The plaque had been buried and forgotten in front of St. Paul's Lutheran Church. Once unearthed it was rededicated with a ceremony attended by Bethpage VFW Post, Post Commander Bud Rosch, Legislator Rose Marie Walker, and members of the community.


ATTACK ON THE SS ABSAROKA

It is known the sub eventually left the area without harm and, possibly because of her actions against the Absaroka, the December 27th attack was called off.[1]

Two months later, on the night of February 25, 1942, one of the most mysterious events to have transpired in the war, or any other time for that matter, unfolded. At 1:44 AM in the morning, a remote military radar installation that was part of a newly minted early warning system, picked up an unidentified aerial target 120 miles west of Los Angeles and closing. At 2:15 AM Los Angeles area anti-aircraft batteries were put on Green Alert --- ready to fire --- and at 2:21 AM the regional controller ordered a total area-wide blackout. Then, just minutes before the object should have come into the path of the waiting anti-aircraft guns it suddenly vanished. Soon it was seen rising up over the Santa Monica Mountains behind and to the east of the aimed direction of the anti-aircraft guns. At 3:06 AM the Santa Monica area anti-aircraft batteries turned inward toward the object and started firing out over the city following it's track toward Baldwin Hills. Suddenly "the air over Los Angeles erupted like a volcano." (source)

During the intervening period the the giant object of unknown origin, said to be 800 feet long --- the size of a Zeppelin --- withstood the continued pounding of 1440 direct hit anti-aircraft rounds with no signs of any ill effect. From Baldwin Hills it turned back toward the coast heading south past the beach cities of Manhattan and Hermosa. When it reached Redondo Beach it turned inland again then south back out to sea between Long Beach and Huntington Beach, never to be seen again. The true aspects of mystifying incident have never been answered. Some say it was the Japanese, although after the war they completely refuted any implication in the event. Others say it was pure mass hysteria.

A person by the name of C. Scott Littleton was a young boy living along the Strand in Hermosa Beach when the object flew past his house just beyond the surf-line paralleling the coast. It was Littleton's later published reports as an adult that supports the the fact that the object turned inland around Redondo Beach. It was however, not the only confirmation. Within minutes of the Littleton sighting, just south of the Edison steam plant another eyewitness confirmed the object turned diagonally inland toward the south-southeast flying almost directly over the top of the Happy Hour Cafe at 400 Strand, Redondo Beach, owned by the infamous Fifie Malouf.


DURING MY CHILDHOOD REDONDO BEACH LOOKED MUCH AS THE ABOVE, ENDING AT THE OILFIELDS
(please click image)

The following, describing the eyewitness account, is found at the Fifie Malouf link:

"(O)ne night in February 1942 right there on the Strand a huge, giant object, as big as a locomotive, came in off the ocean and flew right over the top of the Happy Hour Cafe and the apartments. (I) had heard a ruckus going on outside, sirens, guns firing, all kinds of stuff, so (I) went out on to the Strand only to see this 'thing' a few hundred feet above the beach slowly glide overhead off the ocean, not making a sound and, because of its length, taking forever to pass over."

As the object approached the top of the hill as it sloped up from the beach, it's path was picked up by a man named Edwards. Edwards, along with his father, owned and operated a neighborhood store on Garnet Street maybe a mile or so inland. The younger Edwards grew up in Redondo Beach and lived in a house on Juanita Avenue just up the street from the store almost on the top of the crest of the Garnet Street hill. Edwards was probably in his early 30s or so in 1942 when the object crossed right over his house. The following is how he recalled the event:

"(Edwards) was awakened in the darkened pre-dawn hours by what he thought was the sound of gunfire. Then the house began to rattle, then shudder, causing a few things to fall off the shelves as though a bulldozer or a freight train had gone by right out front of the house on the sidewalk or something. He ran outside just barely catching a glimpse of what he said looked like the dark black hull of a 'flying ship' cresting over and going down the hill toward Torrance Boulevard. He raced inside, threw on a pair of shoes and a jacket over his pajamas and ran out to the top of the hill thinking all along that whatever it was crashed into the houses on Lucia Street or into the oil fields beyond. When he got to the top of the hill none of the houses were destroyed, nothing was on fire, and there was no sign of the object." (source)

Then, not very many minutes after it had been seen in the sky over Redondo Beach, the object was out over the agriculture fields that existed in those days a few miles inland east and south of the beach cities. That same night a young man and recent college graduate named Albert Nozaki was helping guard a relative's field from vandals that had been ruining crops and breaking irrigation systems because, he thought, they were Japanese. Below describes what Nozaki saw that night in the early morning hours:

"(A)pproaching him well above the fields from the west, silhouetted against the slightly lighter night sky, was a fairly huge dark airborne object coming straight toward him at a fairly quick pace. At first it seemed as though it would take a path off to the right of where he was standing, but before it reached him it just barely began turning flatly toward the south, almost as in a controlled drift. By then he was just under the edge of the object as it went over him with the center off to his left, continuing its turn and eventually disappearing in the southern night sky while all the time gaining altitude. It was huge, dark, very long and wide with no lights or signs of windows. Although it did not have protruding wings like an airplane, the object's outside edges ominously curved down. As well, other than feeling a slight vibrational 'hum' in his chest as it passed over, the object made no sound."

ALBERT NOZAKI: War of the Worlds

Nozaki, who later went on to be an Oscar nominated art director, apparently drawing upon his his experiences in the field that night in 1942, designed the terrifying Martian flying machines seen in the 1953 movie War of the Worlds. Without any real answers to what the object might have been, a strong string of out-of-this world extra-terrestrial connontations has blanketed the phenomenon, of which such an angle, pro and con, is explored as found in The Battle of Los Angeles: 1942 UFO.

Although I remember the events of the so-called Battle of Los Angeles on February 25, 1942 quite well I have no personal recollection from the same period regarding the aforementioned barge, the Kohala, being accidently bombed off the coast of Redondo Beach just two months earlier on Christmas day, 1941. It could be my parents, possibly thinking it was an enemy submarine so close to Redondo, may have purposely chosen to withold knowledge of the events of that day from my brothers and me because it WAS Christmas day. The thing is, even the Japanese say they were not involved in the Battle of Los Angeles incident --- so, in that sense the Battle was not exactly "war related," like say the barge situation was. There are however, two actual physical World War II Japan versus the United States war related events I personally saw and still remember quite well --- although both were apparently minor in the overall scheme of things and neither show up anywhere in history books I have ever been able to find.

One was in Santa Barbara, the other in Redondo Beach. Chronologically the Santa Barbara event happened a few years after the Redondo Beach one, but I am presenting the Santa Barbara incident ahead because I want to close with Redondo.

When the war started, as far as I knew, my mother was well and healthy. Such was not the case. As the war wore on she appeared to be sicker and sicker. Eventually she was diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumor, a tumor that impacted her daily activities and in the end led to her being totally incapacitated and death at a very young age.[2] During that lead up period to her total incapacitation it became increasingly more difficult for my father to care for her as well as take care of three young boys, so much so that he decided to investigate the possibility of a full time care facility. One of the facilities he looked into was an around the clock full care sanatorium-like hospital in Santa Barbara. The day he went to see it he took me and my mother along. While we were there we went out on the Santa Barbara pier. Somewhere along one edge of the pier was a crane-like boom that was in the process of pulling an airplane out of the water and placing it on a flatbed trailer. To me the plane was what I would call a seaplane. On its wings and behind the wings on both sides of the fuselage were clearly distinguishable bright red circular Japanese insignias. The plane was intact and showed no signs of visible damage. Years later I would identify the plane as a Yokosuka E14Y Floatplane. How such a plane ended up being put onto a waiting flatbed trailer on the dock in Santa Barbara has been semi-explained to me as I've cited elsewhere, however, personally, for me it still remains a mystery and unclear. So too, as it is, the whole of the year remains somewhat fuzzy or unclear to me, but the Santa Barbara plane-thing I think most likely occurred early in the year of 1943 and for sure before the end of the year because by Christmas of 1943 I was in India, not returning until the summer of 1944.

The first part of 1943 can be fairly well substantiated as well. My dad was an air raid warden on our block and for several blocks around and did a lot of what I thought was really neat air raid warden stuff. Wanting to be like my dad I mimicked him in a proud sort of way by answering an ad in a comic book for a Junior Air Raid Warden Kit, thus becoming, at least as I viewed it, an air raid warden myself. I know the advertisement began appearing as early as February 1943, meaning most likely, by taking into consideration the cover date lead time, the ad was showing up on the magazine stands by sometime in mid-late December 1942 or at least by January 1943. Knowing me and how I responded to other like offers plus how important being an air raid warden meant to me personally I was most likely chaffing at the bit to get one as soon as I could, so I'm sure by early February 1943 I had one.

FYI, the E14Y floatplane was typically launched from a B-1 type Japanese submarine. To my knowledge there is no record of a B-1 type submarine operating that far south along the coast during the time period I saw the plane being lifted out of the water.[3]

The second of the two war related events I really remember involved a two-man Japanese Midget Submarine that washed up on the beach just south of the Redondo Beach pier --- an event that goes totally unreported for some reason. A then Redondo Beach resident named Max Harris and an avowed eyewitness to the midget sub washing up on the beach, who would be well into his 90s now if still alive, was age 26 at the time and, extrapolated from his own words, describes how he recalls the event:

"It was a quiet morning around 10:00 AM and me and my girlfriend were walking along the beach. All of a sudden out of nowhere, six American bombers flew right over us and started dropping bombs about 500 yards from the shoreline. They then circled back and did it again, dropping at least 50 bombs and then flew away. The next thing I knew about 200 soldiers appeared and they quickly closed the beach.

"Later that day radio news broadcasts said that a Japanese two-man submarine had been sighted off the coast of Redondo and it was destroyed. Two days later the submarine washed up on shore and inside they found the bodies of two Japanese Naval officers." (source)

Harris has cited the date of the above event as being October 4, 1942. It is not clear exactly what the date Harris gives signifies. Since the sub took two days following the bombing to actually show up on the beach, when Harris says the 4th, does he mean the day of the bombing was the 4th thus indicating the day the sub washed up on shore was the 6th? Or does he mean the day the sub washed up was the 4th meaning the sub was bombed the 2nd?

Why is it important? It has to do with HOW the sub was able to end up being off the coast of Redondo Beach in the first place. I remember a different date, maybe only a few days later, but enough days to allow the submarine to be off Redondo on a more-or-less "official record" basis.

------
ALMOST ANYONE KNOWING REDONDO WOULD RECOGNIZE THE COLOR PHOTO ON THE RIGHT AS BEING ALONG THE ESPLANADE


THE OCEAN OFF HERMOSA BEACH LOOKED THE SAME THE NIGHT OF THE LA UFO
(please click image)

My brother's birthday is more toward the middle of October. Since his birthday fell on a weekend in 1942 my parents decided to give him a surprise party. To pull it off required my brothers and me to be out of the house while it was being decorated and guests, friends and kids secretly arrived --- so my dad took us to the beach for a walk. It was not unusual to wander along the sand with one or the other or both of our parents, or even grandparents, so it was no big thing. However, we invariably hunted moonstones on what was called Moonstone Beach in front of the Strand that ran north of the pier in those days near the previously mentioned Happy Hour Cafe. Instead, this time, no sooner had we reached the Strand than we worked our way south of the pier to see a highly-muted town event, a two-man Japanese midget submarine that had washed up on shore. Even though the sub was roped off blocking any formal access from the front, to get to it my dad took us along a narrow strip between the Horseshoe Pier and the rocks, crossing under the pilings of the straight pier along the surf line and onto the beach proper. When we reached the sub he lifted me up and I was able to look inside through an open hatch.

A handful of well armed GIs, if not toting rifles slung over their shoulders were at least carrying side arms, whose job it was to apparently guard the submarine in some fashion from incorrigibles or worse, had repositioned themselves some distance from the immediate vicinity of the sub to the somewhat more palatable sidewalk above the beach in order to interact with a few of the more viable members of the local female population. Eventually one of the GIs saw us climbing all over the sub and waved us off with no shots fired.


A few days before, within minutes of the midget submarine being spotted 500 yards off the Redondo Beach pier, a half a dozen airplanes dropped bombs from her last known position to all along her suspected path of travel. Two days later the sub, although virtually undamaged, washed up on shore. The date of the event has been reported as being October 4, 1942, although it doesn't really matter much that the bombing occurred in October but that I personally saw the midget submarine within days of it washing up on the beach --- and I remember quite clearly seeing it with my dad --- we were there that day because we had to be out of the house for my brother's birthday

Six planes dropped 50 bombs a quarter mile off the beach at 10:00 in the morning! That is a heck of a lot of bombs and a WHOLE lot of noise, especially so early in the day on whatever day or date it was done. One would think I would recall specifically such a major noise making event living only a few blocks from the ocean and straight up from the pier. The thing is, the thumping noise of explosives had become common place. Not long after Pearl Harbor the military installed two 155mm guns of the end of the Redondo Beach pier as well as anti-aircraft guns a short distance away just above the beach south of Redondo by the Hollywood Riviera Club. They were constantly test firing the things, so much so that in the case of the anti-aircraft guns the continued pounding of the ensuing target practice structurally damaged the club so much it actually had to close the place in 1942.


ONE OF TWO 155mm GUNS PLACED ON THE END OF
REDONDO BEACH'S PIER, DECEMBER 1941 TO 1943


By October 1942 most if not all of the Japanese submarines, except for the I-25, had departed the west coast for other areas of operation. The whereabouts of the I-25, which had just participated in the aerial bombing of Oregon on September 9th and the 29th, was known to still be off the south Oregon coast on October 4, 1942 because on that date she torpedoed the 6,653-ton American tanker Camden. Two days later on October 6th the I-25 sunk the 7,038-ton American tanker Larry Doheny somewhere south of Cape Sebastian. Thereafter it is said to have departed the Oregon coast arriving in Yokosuka, Japan October 24, 1942 for overhaul. During the 20-day span that lapsed between the September 9th aerial attack on the U.S. mainland in Oregon and the second one on September 29th, the I-25 embarked on an extremely top secret mission involving the release of the midget submarine that ended up being bombed off Redondo --- a mission that one day, once it came to light, would reveal a top secret Japanese plan embracing the uncontrolled unleashing of a nuclear weapon against U.S. soil along the Pacific west coast, more specifically the Los Angeles basin.


FUTURE MOTHER SHIP LAUNCHES FIRST OF TWO AIR STRIKES AGAINST OREGON IN SEPTEMBER 1942
(please click image)

On the 10th of September, one single day after the I-25's first aerial bombing of Oregon, which was for the most part was so ineffective it was basically unknown at the time --- and basically still is --- an Army Air Force maritime patrol bomber out of McChord Field in Tacoma, Washington, not searching for the sub but on routine patrol, caught the I-25 exposed on the surface with a number of crew members on deck. The sub managed to crash-dive eventually escaping with no damage after the bomber dropped a whole bomb bay of explosives on her (some reports cite anywhere from 3 to 10 depth charges unleashed by the bomber). A few days later, well off the Oregon coast and no longer being pursued --- and apparently what the crew was on deck making preparations for --- the sub took on a two-man midget sub. The sub was apparently offloaded from an armed merchant ship or commerce raider, with all fingers pointing to the Japanese transport ship Hakusan Maru, she being escorted at the time in the open seas south of the Aleutians by the Japanese submarine RO-64, both vessels operating out of the occupied island of Kiska, Alaska.

Midget subs, which had a short range of operation, typically carried only two crew members, and had to be launched from a mothership, of which the I-25 had the capability of being, and as clearly shown on the map to the right, transported it south, leaving it and it's crew in the shadow of one of the Channel Islands, most likely Santa Barbara Island, 38 miles off the southern California coast or San Nicolas located 76 miles south west of Redondo Beach. There the midget sub lurked for several days up to a week or two waiting along the beach or one of the coves for the right time to strike or complete its mission.[4]

It should be noted that B-1 type submarines like the I-25 that carried and launched the midget sub had a 14,000 nautical mile range. The home base for the I-25 was thousands of miles across the Pacific Ocean from the U.S. on the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. It was scheduled to arrive in Yokosuka, Japan October 24, 1942 for overhaul after having left Kwajalein ten months earlier, on January 11, 1942.

When the I-25 departed the waters off Oregon in September and headed south to release the midget submarine it had already transited clear across the Pacific and been prowling up and down the U.S. Pacific west coast close to ten months, soon after-which it was low on or had no torpedoes as well as running low on fuel and provisions. It is my belief the I-25, after launching the two-man sub on or near one of the Channel Islands she continued south to the La Palma Secret Base seen and reported on by American espionage agent and actress Rochelle Hudson as being located in the estuaries near Acacoyagua, Chiapas, Mexico. There she refueled and took on supplies --- then returned north, of which one would think to retrieve the midget sub and/or pick up it's crew. However, on September 29th the I-25 was back in northwest waters, having bypassed both Redondo Beach and the Channel Islands because it is a known fact she launched a plane to set fire to the Oregon forests on that date. Then, a few days later, on October 4, the same day the midget submarine was bombed off Redondo, the I-25 torpedoed the 6,653-ton American tanker Camden in Oregon waters. Two days after that, on the 6th, she sank the 7,038-ton American tanker Larry Doheny somewhere south of Cape Sebastian.

Following the semi-successful attack against the tanker Camden which, although on fire, did not sink until seven days after being torpedoed, and the more successful attack against the Larry Doheny which sank immediately, the I-25 departed the Pacific west coast altogether, arriving in Yokosuka, Japan October 24, 1942. The question is, was the crew and midget sub left out to dry or had the I-25 picked up the crew on the way back north leaving the sub abandoned only to end up floating unmanned off Redondo? Although it is known the I-25 as a mother ship had the ability to launch a midget sub it isn't clear that she could float under one or actually pull one out of the water and safely reattach it on her aft deck. Hence, if such was the case, i.e., not being able to reattach the sub, crew or not, the two man sub would have to be left, albeit most likely scuttled.


JAPANESE TWO-MAN SUBMARINE MOUNTED ADJACENT TO THE MOTHER SHIP'S CONNING TOWER
(please click image)

As for the midget submarine, although there were plenty of targets in the north around Seattle and San Francisco for both full-size and midget submarines, there were no known substantial hard targets that fell into the range of capabilities of a two-man sub in the general Los Angeles area. No U.S. aircraft carriers, battleships, or other major naval vessels or warships like up north. Nothing coastal that could have been impacted adversely enough to warrant such a mission either. At the time the midget sub was thought to have been dealing with a soft target, say like the pick up or delivery of documents, maps or blueprints or a high profile person, most likely a spy, saboteur, or turncoat. In that there were only two naval officers said to have been on board, if they were delivering, it is not known if our military interceded or confiscated whatever it was prior to or after the bombing OR if the sub's crew had already transfered the package to the mainland, with the whatever it was blending into the wartime milieu of America.

Why the two-man sub was running close to or on the surface at 10:00 AM in broad daylight right off the coast of Redondo Beach and WHY Redondo Beach, is not known, although the quoted paragraph below sheds light on the prime suspected possibility. Nobody knows if the sub was coming or going or which direction it was traveling. If it had been positioned due west by it's mother ship off one of the Channel Islands there would be no practical reason, military or otherwise, for the sub to be transiting the blight in a north-south direction paralleling the South Bay coastline during daylight hours. Same with east-west. Midget subs only carried a small air reserve and not much under surface battery power compared to conventional subs, but usually had sufficient supplies of both for any mission assigned. The midget submarine may have already completed it's mission and abandoned. As well the mission may have involved San Nicolas Island, re the following from the source so cited:

"Top of the list was the then little known, never before built nor never before tested theoretical weapon called the atomic bomb. The brain trust that was eventually put together to design such a weapon knew that once constructed, before it could ever be used formally, some form of the weapon would have to be tested --- and that any test would have to be done in some isolated spot without prying eyes, with minimal concern for destruction and radioactive fallout. Top secret at the time, several locations were suggested, of which one was San Nicolas Island, the most remote of the California Channel Islands." (source)

Harris reported two dead Japanese were found on the sub which means at the time of the bombing the sub wasn't abandoned by it's crew. Nothing about the Japanese officers or their fate has ever been revealed. But, if they were still alive at the time of the bombing or already dead is not known. I saw the sub on the beach within a day or so of it washing up and to my knowledge no bodies were found in conjuction with the sub. Even though there is very little that could be much more blatantly obvious than an enemy two-man sub washing up on a public beach in a highly populated area, let alone with two dead Japanese officers, the whole incident must have been super-sensitive on BOTH sides because it was kept quiet at the time and very little or nothing has surfaced regarding the event since.

It is odd that after all these years not one official has come forward with details of what happened. After all, Harris is quoted as saying "200 soldiers appeared and they quickly closed the beach." That is an awful lot of witnesses, and for sure, not all of them could have had security clearances. If the two dead naval officers died in the line of duty, out of courtesy, more than likely their bodies were returned to Japan, so another sizable group of non security clearance personel would have been involved.[5]

I find it even more odd that in 1942, Harris, who was age 26 at the time, single, and apparently in good health --- he said he was with his girlfriend and when his article was made public he was in his 90s --- was not in the military himself, especially being it was at the height of the draft. Nowhere does he claim any military or service connected affliation in what he writes. It could be he was actually in a more official capacity than he was willing to say.

As found in The Wanderling And His High School Chums, just as I started high school I returned to living in Redondo Beach after having been gone all of my elementary school years --- albeit living as close as Hermosa Beach for awhile during the second or third grade. No sooner had I entered the ninth grade than I found a part-time job running errands several days a week for a house-bound former merchant marine who lived around the corner and up the street from my house. The ship he was on during World War II was torpedoed by German U-boats off the coast of Florida just at the beginning of the war. He was severely burned when he was forced to jump overboard into oil burning along the surface of the water. Over the two-year period or so I worked for him we became friends. One day returning from my errands my Merchant Marine Friend introduced me to a man who was visiting him as they were discussing various aspects of submarine warfare. One of the topics that came up was the two-man sub that ended up on the beach next to the pier in Redondo. When I interjected that my father had lifted me up to see inside the sub the man got all excited and went on and on about it. If that man was Max Harris or not I do not know. He was however, the only person I knew that ever talked about it much.[6]


Contents

Clearing San Francisco, California, 6 August 1944, Current sailed on towing duty to Ulithi, arriving 14 October. She carried out local towing and salvage operations from this port until 19 May 1945. Among her most important repair operations were the emergency salvage work performed on Houston (CL-81) and Canberra (CA-70) from 19 October to 14 December 1944, and the valiant fire fighting on Randolph (CV-15) 11 March 1945.

Okinawa operations [ edit ]

After replenishing in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Current arrived off Okinawa 2 June 1945 for salvage operations aiding the many ships damaged by Japanese air attack, and those sailing in the U.S. 3rd Fleet and the U.S. 5th Fleet raids on the Japanese homeland. She served ships of the occupation forces at Okinawa until 5 January 1946 when she sailed by way of Sasebo, Japan to San Francisco, arriving 27 February.


By Jon Hoppe

Monday last marked the 74th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Much indeed has been written about the attack, which killed 2,403 US servicemen died, as did 64 of the Japanese attackers and 35 civilians. One particular area of interest has been the operations of the Japanese midget submarines during the attacks. For several decades after the attack, many mysteries surrounded the efficacy and fate of the two-man submersibles. With 9/10 of their crews having perished in the attack, one man (and his vessel) being captured, very little could be found to piece together just what had happened to the others. But slowly, over the succeeding years, the missing submarines were found, the last as late at 2009.

In the following extract from December 1974’s issue of Proceedings, LCDR A. J. Stewart Relates how one of the midget submarines, Type A Kō-hyōteki-class submarine No. 18 –also known as “Midget D” — was found and raised nearly twenty years after the attack.

Divers from the USS Current (ARS-22), prepare to enter the water for salvage operations on HA. 18 July, 1960. USNI Archives.

“On 13 June 1960, Scuba diver trainees, under instruction from U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor, were involved in a long-distance diving exercise outside Keehi Lagoon, near the entrance to the harbor. Because of tidal action, the water is generally murky. But on that Monday morning, the water was clear. Instructor GM/ 2 Jerry Galloway, decided to take his students into deeper water. Minutes after the training had commenced, one of the divers, SK/1 C. F. Buhl, surfaced. He claimed to have sighted what appeared to be the sunken hull of a submarine. In subsequent dives, Buhl and Galloway confirmed that the hulk was indeed that of a submarine—one resembling those used by the Japanese in the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was sitting upright in 76 feet of water at Latitude 21° 17′ 48” North, Longitude 157° 56′ West.

“Midget ‘D’ [HA. 18] had been located. Her torpedoes were still in their tubes, her hatch was unclogged and, although her hull was encrusted with coral, she appeared to be structurally sound and a determination was made to raise her. The USS Current (ARS-22) was assigned the salvage task. Bridles were slipped around the submerged hull on the morning of 13 July 1960, and on the following day the Current raised Midget ‘D’ to the surface and towed her back to the base.

USS YD-121 hoists the submarine HA. 18 alongside USS Current (ARS-22). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, July 14, 1960. USNI Archives.

“There followed the first, dramatic entry into the submarine as Captain H. A. Thompson, of the ComSubPac staff pried open the conning rower hatch and climbed down into the submarine. In the dark, muddy interior, bent piping, a door twisted off its hinges, her large electric motor torn from its mountings, and much shattered glass gave mute evidence that Midget ‘D’ had suffered great damage from depth charges. However, no trace of documents or crew was found. No bone fragments or teeth were found. Experts agree that even if human remains had disintegrated over two decades, the victim’s teeth would have resisted the water’s corrosive effects. Second, a study of the small lengths of time fuse found, along with three detonators, indicated that inasmuch as sulfur was still present in the fuse, the scuttling charge had never been activated.

Two salvagers work around the open conning tower hatch of HA. 18 shortly after her recovery. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, July, 1960. USNI Archives.

“Fragments of plastic charge totaling 50 pounds, still stable, were taken from the hull. More dangerous were her two torpedoes, each containing 790 pounds of explosive. All efforts to remove them from their tubes failed, owing to corrosion. It was decided that the bow section should be unbolted from the remainder of the hull and dumped at sea. This proved an easy task as the bolts turned freely even after 7,000 days in salt water.

HA. 18 sitting dockside after her recovery, her bow section not having yet been removed. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, July, 1960. USNI Archives.

“Masayaki Harigai, Japanese consul general in Hawaii, indicated that his government would like to have Midget ‘D’ returned to its homeland as a World War II memorial. His request was granted and arrangements for her transfer were completed. The Japanese LST, Shiretoko, arrived at Pearl Harbor on 19 June 1961 to claim her cargo. Crewmen chained the submarine co the LST’s deck for the long ride back to Japan. Thus, bowless, Midget ‘D’ began her 3,500-mile journey home.

“A new bow was fabricated and attached to Midget ‘D’. She was then placed on permanent display near Memorial Hall at the Maritime Self-Defense Force Service School at Eta Jima where the ten young officers of the Special Attack Unit received their early military training. In a memorial service attended by family members of the crewmen who vainly died in craft of this type, Midget ‘D’ was unveiled on 15 March 1962.

“But what of her crewmen? As previously stated, the conning rower hatch of Midget ‘D’ was unclogged, an action that had to be accomplished from inside the boat. Little doubt exists that her two-man crew left the submarine. Whether or not they survived remains a mystery.'”


USS Ross (DD-563) was a U.S. Navy Fletcher class destroyer named for Captain David Ross, a former Continental Navy lieutenant. The Ross is the only ship in U.S. naval history to survive two underwater mine explosions.

USS Amesbury (DE-66/APD-46), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Lieutenant (jg) Stanton Morgan Amesbury (1916�), who was killed in action while flying from the aircraft carrier Ranger  (CV-4) during Operation Torch in 1942.

USS Hopping (DE-155) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1947. In 1944, she was converted to a Charles Lawrence-class high speed transport and redesignated "APD-51". She was sold for scrap in 1966.

USS Cormorant (AM-40) was an Lapwing-class minesweeper acquired by the United States Navy for the dangerous task of removing mines from minefields laid in the water to prevent ships from passing.

USS Cable (ARS-19) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theater of the war. Because of the bravery of her crew in dangerous combat areas, she returned home after the war's end with three battle stars and the Navy Unit Commendation.

USS Kewaydin (AT-24) was an Bagaduce-class fleet tug laid down for the U.S. Navy in the closing days of World War I and continued in operation throughout World War II.

USS Diver (ARS-5) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for coming to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Escape (ARS-6) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for coming to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Grapple (ARS-7) is a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1951 to 1977. In 1977, she was sold to Taiwan and was renamed ROCS Da Hu (ARS-552).

USS Preserver (ARS-8) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for coming to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Shackle (ARS-9) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for coming to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Chain (ARS-20/T-AGOR-17) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Current (ARS-22) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Grasp (ARS-24) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Clamp (ARS-33) was an Diver-class rescue and salvage ship acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Gear (ARS-34) was a Diver-class rescue and salvage ship acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Hoist (ARS-40) was a Bolster-class rescue and salvage ship acquired by the United States Navy during World War II. Its task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Opportune (ARS-41) was a Bolster-class rescue and salvage ship acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. Her task was to come to the aid of stricken vessels.

USS Recovery (ARS-43) was a Bolster-class rescue and salvage ship of the United States Navy, which remained in commission for over 48 years.

USS Arapaho (AT-68/ATF-68) was a Navajo-class fleet ocean tug which served the U.S. Navy during World War II with her towing services. She was assigned initially to support the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, and was eventually assigned to support Allied forces in the war zones of the Pacific Ocean, resulting in her crew returning home after the war with four battle stars to their credit.


USS Current

Figure 1: USS Current (ARS-22) underway, date and location unknown. US Navy photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 2: USS Current (ARS-22) underway, date and location unknown. US Navy photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 3: USS Current (ARS-22) underway, date and location unknown. US Navy photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 5: USS Current (ARS-22) during salvage operations of a Japanese World War II era midget submarine at Keehi Lagoon just outside Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 6 July 1960. This submarine has been designated by the Navy as "Midget D." It was launched from its mother submarine I-18 at 0215 on the morning of 7 December 1941. Photograph courtesy of Joe Radigan MACM USN Ret. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 6: Aft view of USS Current (ARS-22) at the Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, 28 March 1946. Current was being overhauled at Mare Island from 1 to 31 March 1946. Forward of her from left to right are: USS Lipan (ATF-85) , USS Deliver (ARS-23) , and USS Preserver (ARS-8) . Mare Island Navy Yard photograph No. 1241-46. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 7: Amidships view of USS Current (ARS-22) at the Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, 28 March 1946. The sterns of USS Deliver (ARS-23) and USS Preserver (ARS-8) are seen forward of Current . Mare Island Navy Yard photograph No. 1242-46. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 8: USS Current (ARS-22) and USS Abnaki (ATF-96) underway off the Hawaiian Islands, 22 November 1953. US Navy photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.

The 1,530-ton USS Current (ARS-22) was a Diver class rescue and salvage ship that was built by the Basalt Rock Company at Napa, California, and was commissioned on 14 June 1944. The ship was approximately 213 feet long and 39 feet wide, had a top speed of 15 knots, and had a crew of 120 officers and men. Current was armed with one 3-inch gun, two twin 40-mm guns, and four .50-caliber machine guns.

Current eventually left Ulithi and, after making a brief stop at Leyte in the Philippines, steamed on to provide assistance to the warships involved with the amphibious invasion of Okinawa. Current arrived off Okinawa on 2 June 1945 and began salvage operations on many of the ships that were damaged by Japanese air attacks. Current remained at Okinawa even after the war ended and stayed there until 5 January 1946, when she was ordered to return to the United States. After stopping at Sasebo, Japan, for fuel and provisions, Current started her long journey back to the United States, arriving at San Francisco on 27 February.

During her next Far Eastern deployment in 1954 and 1955, Current was attached to the Taiwan Patrol, which included visits to Japanese ports. Current also participated in the “Passage to Freedom” evacuation of refugees from North Vietnam. Operation Passage to Freedom was the term used by the United States Navy to describe its transportation from 1954 to 1955 of 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers, and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam to South Vietnam. The French military transported an additional 500,000 people.

In 1957, Current was sent to the western Pacific and participated in a mine-recovery training exercise around the Marianas Islands. She also surveyed and blasted a channel in Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea and salvaged aircraft and ships off the coast of Japan. After returning to Pearl Harbor and working there for a few months, Current was sent back to the Far East to patrol with destroyers off Japan and to conduct operations with the Seventh Fleet in the Taiwan Straits from October 1957 to February 1958.


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