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Was there once a Universal World Culture? A researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Vomos-Toth Bator argued there was such a culture, and he presented over 1,000,000 place names from around the world to prove his point.
At Borota-Kukula in Hungary, Borota near Lake Chad in Africa, Kukura, Bolivia and Kukula, New Guinea we find Cone-Houses of similar shapes. In addition, Dr. Vamos Toth found 6000-year-old pottery signs from sites such as Tordos in the Carpathian Basin of Europe, ancient Egypt, and Banpo in China all showing amazing correspondence. Toth explains that the appearance of identical place-names in different parts of the world is evidence of an ancient civilization that formerly existed that he called Tamana.
Image courtesy Clyde Winters
All of these similarities in place-names and cultural expressions, separated by thousands of miles suggested to Toth that at some time in our distant past mankind shared a universal culture. He believed he had found this Universal culture which spanned the entire world untold millennia before our present era. Toth called this pre-Diluvial culture: Tamana, the name these ancient civilizers used to denote their colonial cities.
Over a decade ago Toth observed that certain place-names common to his ancestral home in the Carpathian Basin of his beloved Hungary, were also found in countries outside of Europe. After years of research he discovered that 5800 places names are found in the Carpathian Basin and 149 countries around the world. Over 3500 of these place names can be seen outside of Eurasia, in Africa, the Americas and Oceania. Most of these towns and rivers that share Tamana place names are found in areas recently discovered or geographically not known even 100-150 years ago.
Map of places around the world named Tamana (Courtesy author)
Topographical names rarely change; even though new peoples may settle in an area. For example, my home town of Chicago still bears a name originally given the area by its former Native American inhabitants.
Tamana - Original Settlement
The term Tamana is a place name found in 24 countries around the world. Toth discovered the occurrence of this place name as a river in Northern Ontario: Tamuna (< Tamana). This place-name situated in a secluded swampy area near the Hudson Bay, is an infusive-superfusive survival of the word Tamana.
Tamana world map (Courtesy author)
The term Tamana in the Manding language of Africa, the Magyar language of Hungary and the Dravidian languages spoken in India share the same meaning: "Strong Place, Stronghold' or 'Original Settlement. Since the cities established by the Tamana people were cities or trading centers situated among hostile tribes led to these settlements being called: Tamana or 'stronghold'.
The Tamana people may have come from Saharan Africa, because they appear to have expanded around the world after the Deluge, which some researchers like Zecharia Sitchin, who in his book When Time Began , believe occurred 13,000 years ago. Sitchin believes that 13,000 years ago climatic changes occurred after the Antarctica ice sheet melted and sent a giant tidal wave, destroying low-land areas throughout the world.
- From Easter Island to Hawaii: Was there a Common Writing System used by Pacific Islanders?
- Was the Garden of Eden a Real Place?
- Evidence of The Great Flood – Real or a Myth? Part I
There is considerable mention of a great deluge in the legends and ancient lore of almost all the peoples on the planet. In the Hebrew Bible, we find the biblical account of Noah, who was told by god to build an ark to carry the remnants of mankind and the animals of the earth.
In the Mesopotamian cuneiform writing there is also mention of the great deluge. In the Mesopotamia account of the deluge the Sumerian god Enki, told Atra Hasis to build a boat to save mankind during a great flood that lasted days. And in India we find mention of the god Manu, who is supposed to have saved mankind after a similar great flood.
Manu and the seven sages at the time of Deluge.
All of these stories have a common theme. That theme is the presence in ancient times of pluvial climate which led to mankind learning more about the navigation of the seas, and boat building.
It would appear that because of the world wide flooding of low land areas, the only safe place to live at this time may have been the highland areas of Saharan Africa. It is this theory which has led to the Tamana culture bearers being called Proto-Saharans.
It would appear the Tamana people belonged to an ancient confederation called Maa. Members of the Maa or Fish Confederation include the Magyar, Egyptians, Elamites, Manding, Afro-Asiatic speakers and the Dravidians.
The name Maa was either their great ancestor Noah, Atra Hasis, etc., or the god worshipped by these ancient navigators. In honor of this great ancestor the descendants of the Tamana people used the term ma, to denote 'greatness or highness'. For example the term for 'great' is, Magyar:Maga- s; Manding Maga; and Dravidian Ma.
The Tamana people also claim descent from the great Maa, founder of the Fish Confederation. For illustration, the Manding or Mandikan people call themselves Ma-nde (the children of Ma); the Sumerians called themselves Mah-Gar-ri (exalted children); while the Magyar refer to themselves as Muh-ger-ri (Mogeri) or Ma-ka-r (exalted children).
Sculpture of the Manding, a family of ethnic groups in West Africa. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
The research of Dr. Vamos-Toth Bator indicates that the Tamana had their own writing as proven by the similarity of the pottery writing found on ancient samples from Africa and Eurasia. In addition, they possessed an outstanding boat technology and knowledge of nautical astronomy. These Proto-Saharans offered prayers to Ka 'the ancient spirit/God’: Magyar Kan; Mandikan Kani; and Dravidian Ka-n.
Toth, after years of research has found the missing link in ancient history, that is numerous global toponyms that point to a common origin around the world. Although many scholars would dispute this claim right away without reviewing the evidence, the results of Toth's research, when viewed with an open mind and including the hundreds of toponyms that he has discovered, shows a link between place-names in Africa, Eurasia and the Americas, that deserves to be examined by other academics.
A key element of Vamos Toth’s research has been the discovery of regularity of prefixed or suffixed place-name elements. The use of this method is not new. It was also used by Allen Mawer, in 1924 in his book The Chief Elements Used in English Place-Names.
The toponymic data collected by Toth compliments the work of N.Lahovary, who in Dravidian Origins and the West made factual claims about the common origin of pre-Indo-European cultures in Europe and Asia. The discovery of the -ari element in many toponymic examples is significant because ari, agrees with ur, the Dravidian suffix for 'city, village or town'. In Sumerian ur/ uru, has a similar meaning. This corresponds to terms in the Manding languages where we have furu, or 'property of a clan'. This compliments the findings of Lahovary of the widespread use of ar, among the hydronomic names from Europe to India.
Toth gives many Tamana place-names with the ma- element. This agrees with the Manding word ma: 'area' or 'surface', this corresponds to the Dravidian word man : 'earth', 'soil' and 'land'.
Another common place-name element recognized by Toth is ka and ki. The ka element seems to represent an inhabited area. For example, in the Dravidian languages ka means fortification, in Manding languages -ka, is a locative suffix joined to place-names, while in Swahili ka means 'to live (in), dwell. In Sumerian, -ki, is the past position determinative placed after the name of places and countries.
The final Tamana place-name elements covered by Thoth are: gu,nu, Bum and Buna. These terms, from the study of the languages spoken by the Tamana culture, were used to refer to home or domicile. For example, the bo or bu element is often found in the terms for house; for example, Kannada gibu is 'house' and Manding bo is 'house'. The nu element can be found in many languages as n+vowel, for instance, Dravidian nakar is 'house', Manding nu is 'habitation of a family or clan'.
The Dravidian term mal, or mala was a common root in the toponyms of the Near East, Europe, India and Mexico. In the Dravidian languages mala means mountain, or hill or large rough rocks. In the Magyar language, a member of the Ural-Altaic group mal means 'pile, stack, heap and hill'.
The Indus Valley civilization (2,600-1,900 BCE) located both in Pakistan and India is often identified as having been Dravidian. The Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization.
The Dravidian, Manding and Ural Altaic languages can explain the place names 'sand' and 'kara'. The kara term is most interesting. This name is very popular especially in Inner Asia. This term occurs as a name for towns situated along rivers, streams or lakes. This suggests that kara is a water sign.
This view is supported by the Manding and Dravidian languages. In Dravidian 'car' means "unite and shelter", while kar means "saltiest or brackish'. In Manding kara means "to assemble, and be dirty". This suggests that the kara toponym was used to name towns, because it signified both a place of assembly (shelter), and a place where the water would be brackish or dirty. In the Dravidian languages kari, meant river. The term kara is often associated dirt or black, for example Turkish kara is 'black', Magyar korom 'soot, dirty' and Korean kurim 'soot'.
- Startling Similarity between Hindu Flood Legend of Manu and the Biblical Account of Noah
- Did Paleoamericans Reach South America First?
- Buddhism in Ancient Egypt and Meroe – Beliefs Revealed Through Ancient Script
The sand, place name appears to denote dry uncultivated land near a river at high altitude areas of the globe. Sand, may agree with Manding sade 'uncultivated land in the region where rain is formed (the mountains)’. This interpretation is based on the reading of sa and nde. In Manding sa, means 'serpent, rain, sky region where rain is formed' and nde 'uncultivated land near water'. It is interesting to note that -sa, -csa in Magyar means 'pond, dirty lake'.
Since the tops of mountains are usually covered by (rain) clouds, it meant when people living in the valleys moved their habitation sites up into the mountainous areas near rivers they would call these sites sa- nde 'the sky region's land near water'. This view is supported by the fact that in Chinese, shan means 'mountain range', while shandi meant 'hilly land', this totally agrees with our interpretation of the term sa-nde. In the Chinese language shang would agree with sand, because shang means 'upper'. In Magyar, the word sand (shand) means 'slant of the mountains'.
Mountain range and Sanjiaolong Crater Lake in the Longwanqun National Forest Park, Huinan County, Jilin, China. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Another Tamana place name is assa. The term assa, is related to water. In many ancient languages ba and a, were used to denote water. Many Manding and Dravidian words formed with an initial s(c)- today, in ancient times were formed by an initial t-. In Dravidian, Magyar and Manding ta-, indicates places. In Mandi- ng -sa, in ancient times was used to denote a place of habitation. Thus assa, could be interpreted as 'water place or locality of water'. The addition of the -s, after a-, in the term assa, is nothing more than a verbal termination. Thus if sand-assa, is near a body of water it can be interpreted as 'mountainous region of land near water', or 'much water this locality'.
Another Tamana place name was assa-ker. The term assa-ker means 'brackish water this locality' or ' much water this locality of the brackish type'.
Connections around the World
The evidence is clear, many place names in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas are substrates that are derived from the languages spoken by the Tamana people which include Sumerian, Magyar, Mandikan and the Dravidian group. The toponyms discovered by Dr. Vamos-Toth also highlight the wide dispersal of the Tamana people in ancient times and the origination of the substantial Nostratic vocabulary that link widely dispersed languages from Africa, to Eurasia and the Americas.
The research of Dr. Vamos Toth is witness to the High-Level Universal culture of his Tamana culture-bearers. Dr. Vamos died on March 1, 2006 in Seattle, Washington USA.
Was Tamana a Universal Civilization of Mankind Before the Great Flood? - History
A Universal Flood: 3000 BC
by Dr. David Livingston
A Flatter Earth . . .
40 days of steady, pouring rain . . .
Hundreds of volcanoes exploding all at once . . .
Thousands of new, large springs gushing out huge amounts of water . . .
Definitions and Language Use
This was the Flood of Noah's day. It was a worldwide cataclysmic Flood sent by God to destroy all living things except for eight people who survived on the Ark. In addition to the Bible, many very early historical records also document this Flood.
Two problems about which there are great differences are: the date of the Flood, and whether it was local or universal. Critics of the flood narrative consider it either a myth, or a local flood story. There are apparent conflicts between the Bible and some areas of science relative to the date of the Great Flood. Both biblical and extrabiblical literature, being eyewitness accounts, should control the dating, with secondary importance given to scientific opinions, and sophisticated radiometric dating techniques.
The Hebrew word mabul is the word for "flood" used throughout Genesis 6-9. It is a unique word used only for this stupendous event. Eight other Hebrew words are used to describe local floods. But none of these compare with the extent of the Great Flood. The Greek word kataklusmo and kataklysmos, used both in the Septuagint and in the New Testament hardly needs interpretation. Cataclysm denotes violent destruction. It occurs in Matthew 24: 38-39 and Luke 17: 26-27. In 2 Peter 3: 5-6 we are reminded of that which mankind desires to forget: that is, that God made the heavens and earth with its water, and by that water the world was cataclysthized, destroying the surface of the earth and all living, breathing creatures. The Flood was sent because of universal total human depravity, with extreme violence toward others, which warranted severe punishment.
Preparation for the Flood
Was an Ark really necessary? All the time, effort, and expense of building this enormous ship was wasted if it were only a local flood. Noah and his family, guiding a host of animals and other creatures, could have migrated to a higher area and waited for a local flood to flow out into the ocean.
Was the Ark large enough? Space on the Ark equalled over 500 railroad box cars. Experts say only one-third of that number would have been needed.
How did Noah gather animals into the Ark? Apparently they came to the Ark by instinct. They may also have hibernated for the whole time, minimizing the feeding and cleaning problems.
All Families on earth came from Noah and his sons.
William Henry Green, a nineteenth century Princeton theologian, has influenced many to accept large gaps in the genealogical records. In his opinion,". . . we conclude that the Scriptures furnish no data for a chronological computation prior to the life of Abraham and that the Mosaic records do not fix and were not intended to fix the precise date either of the Flood or of the creation of the world" (1890: 303). He has allowed for great genealogical gaps in order to accommodate scientific information which he believes indicates a very old earth (1890: 286).
Considering the Flood as universal, all mankind since then are descended from the sons of Noah. These geneologies begin about 5000 BC.
Extent of the Flood: Geological Consequences
Peter prophesied in 2 Peter 3: 3-6 that scoffers would deny the world was destroyed by a flood. He said these willfully ignore this stupendous event. In verses 10-11, a prophecy of the destruction of the entire universe is described, with Noah's Flood used as an analogy. How could a local flood be the analogy for this awful event?
We cannot here reconcile the many complicated geological issues related to the Flood. But, for sure, a cataclysmic, worldwide flood would have had an enormous effect on the surface of the planet. Psalm 104: 8 says, "The mountains rose up the valleys sank down." Oceans deepened due to the weight of water running off land surfaces into them. With the stupendous weight of new runoff water on the earth's mantle, mountains were uplifted. Today the continents and highest mountains are covered with sea fossils. Half the continental sediments are of oceanic origin. Geologists say this is because, at times, the continents have been under the sea, further confirming a worldwide Flood. Since mountains have waterborne fossils at their highest elevations (including Mt. Everest), it is evident that they were all under water at some time. However, this does not mean the waters had to be deep enough to cover modern Mt. Everest and other high mountains. Mountains were uplifted by the pressures on the earth's mantle. It seems most unfortunate that students of geology do not take the Great Flood into consideration as they attempt to interpret the geological data.
- "Universal" means all that Noah could see. Only his personal "world" was flooded.
- The present high mountains have been there for millions of years and were as high before the Flood as they are now. There simply was not enough water to cover them all (Mt. Everest, for instance, is 29,000 feet high, thus the flood waters would have to be almost six miles deep). If water covered all the earth, where could it possibly have gone after the Flood?
- The "days" of Genesis 1 were long periods of time. Most local Flood proponents believe in a very old earth that has been in existence at least a million years with long palaeo-, meso-, and neolithic prehistorical periods.
Considering the biblical narrative, which says that the Flood was universal, the words "all" and "every" are used 16 times in Genesis 6-9 to describe the totality of the Flood.
"Flood traditions" (the Gilgamesh Epic, the Atrahasis Epich, etc.), even though not as accurate as the Bible, all say the ark came to rest on a mountain. IMPOSSIBLE with a local flood. The world before the Flood was quite different from the world today. Since it did not rain before the Flood (Genesis 2:5), yet rivers flowed (v.10), there must have been great subterranean reservoirs of water. At the appointed time, the "fountains of the great deep" (Genesis 7:11 ) spewed out their aquatic and volcanic contents while the "windows of heaven were opened" as some form of water was precipitated. Coupling these mechanisms with the fact that 70% of the earth is presently covered with water in sufficient quantity to cover the entire (flattened out) earth to a depth of about 7,500 feet, we can conclude that the biblical story is, indeed, quite reasonable. Present mountain ranges are mostly sedimentary rocks attributable to a flood, or volcanoes. They could have been formed during the Flood, or finished rising just after it.
Prehistoric man has been described as living in the "stone ages." However, stone age people are a relative phenomenon. In every generation, including ours, since the beginning of time, some groups have lived in a "stone age," while nearby, people lived with high civilizations. The point is that a culture cannot be dated based on their use of stone implements. Braidwood's opinion, typical of many prehistorians, is completely speculative, "Prehistory means the time before written history began. Actually, more than 99 percent of man's story is prehistory. Man is probably well over a million years old, but he did not begin to write history (or to write anything) until about 5,000 years ago"(1967: 1). If man could not, and did not write during prehistory, there is no way to be sure of his age (of one million years), sophisticated dating methods notwithstanding. This is so because radioactive dating methods cannot be calibrated with known dates before 5,000 years ago, thus cannot date stone age cultures (usually claimed to be older than 3000 BC).
Of course, the climate would be altered by catastrophes accompanying the Flood. Whereas rain had not fallen before the Flood, afterward it became a regular event. Rainbows can be seen in the falling water vapor, God's sign that He would never destroy the earth by water again. If only a local flood occurred, God's promise is broken every time a severe local flood occurs.
Literary parallels to the biblical account
- the epics were written first, and the writers of Scripture used them
- the Bible was written first, and the epics copied them
- both the Bible and the epics were dependent on a primitive original.
Most scholars insist that the writer of Genesis used elements from local epics, but this is impossible to prove. On the other hand, the theory of a primitive original is based on no evidence whatsoever and is simply an opinion of those who hold to it. Although difficult to prove, the preferred choice is that the biblical record came first and inspired the others.
- The Sumerian Deluge Story
One of the oldest extrabiblical versions of the Flood story featured the survivor of the Flood, Ziusudra. Found in the Nippur excavations early in the twentieth century, it dates to 1600 BC.
A well-known tale, found in Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite, and Hurrian literature. Even in the Holy Land, a clay tablet (date ca. 1200 BC) was found with this man's name on it. He was the most popular hero in the Ancient Near East. Using the version from Ashurbanipal's library, in 1872, George Smith published the eleventh tablet of the Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic as The Chaldean Account of the Deluge. Gilgamesh's name appears among the kings in the Sumerian Kinglist (below). He was of the first dynasty of Uruk (Erech), the earliest period of Mesopotamian history. The Gilgamesh Epic indicates a close link with events immediately following the Flood. Someone who had survived the Flood still lived, possibly Ham. Gilgamesh visited him seeking immortality.
The Sumerian Kinglists are very old documents referring to the establishment of cities and kingship before the Flood. High ages given for the kings are either deliberately inflationary, or we have not discovered the correct interpretation of their numbering systems. Sumerian, in general, is still not well understood.
Sumerian Kinglist Part I (Pre-Flood). "When kingship was lowered from heaven, kingship was (first) in Eridu. . . . These are five cities, eight kings ruled them for 241,000 years. Then the Flood swept over the earth." This Flood has to be Noah's Flood. It is the Flood in which every human died except those on the Ark. Since the outworkings of divine kingship was at least one of the reasons which brought on the Flood and kingship was thus terminated, (divine) kingship had to be "lowered from heaven" again after the Flood (see below).
Sumerian Kinglist Part II (Post-Flood). "After the Flood had swept over the earth and when kingship was lowered again from heaven, kingship was first in Kish. . . . in Uruk (biblical Erech) the divine Gilgamesh . . . ruled 126 years . . . its kingship was removed to Ur" (at the peak of its glory). Note that Kish was the first city established after the Flood. Excavations there indicate it was founded about 3000 BC. "Divine" Gilgamesh listed above, actually visited a survivor of the Flood family (see Tablet XI of the Gilgamesh Epic). Therefore, Gilgamesh must have reigned shortly after the Flood regardless what the Kinglist says. There are many other worldwide records of the Flood story in: The Samaritan Pentateuch, Jewish Targums, Berossus, Josephus, the Sibylline Oracles, the Koran, etc.
Flood Levels in Mesopotamian Cities. Early in the archaeological excavations of Mesopotamian river valley sites, deep flood-deposited layers were discovered near the foundations of the city. At first these were interpreted as evidence of Noah's Flood. However, as excavations continued, it became clear that they were only severe local floods, not the cataclysm of Noah's day.
The Sumerian King List begins with Kish immediately after the Flood. Georges Roux says the kingdom of Kish began in approximately 2700 BC (Roux 1966: 120). H.W.F. Saggs points out that when the city of Kish was excavated, the earliest level was from the Jemdet Nasr period (Saggs 1962: 51, 60, ca. 2800-2400 BC).
The epic hero Gilgamesh was king of Uruk at about 2700 BC and, as the legend goes, was actually able to speak with a survivor of the Flood. (This would be impossible with a much earlier 10,000 BC date for the Flood.) The experiences of Gilgamesh, coupled with the Sumerian King List (in which he is mentioned), suggest a Flood date close to 3000 BC.
Radioactive Dating Methods: How are they calibrated?
Although the equipment used to date radioactive materials has become more sophisticated through time, basic problems originally discovered by Willard Libby, inventor of the C14 dating method, still pertain. Calibrated using known dates of Egyptian tomb artifacts, it has proven somewhat accurate back to only about 2000 BC. This has created problems for radio carbon dating older than 5000 BP (Before Present). Dates earlier than that cannot be calibrated since there is no historical material older than 5000 BP. W. Libby himself said: "The first shock Dr. Arnold and I had was that our advisors informed us that history extended back only 5000 years. We had initially thought that we would be able to get samples along the curve back to 30,000 years, put the points in, and then our work would be finished . . . We learned rather abruptly that these numbers, these ancient ages are not known in fact, it is about the time of the first dynasty in Egypt that the last [earliest] historical date of any real certainty has been established"(Libby 1958: 531). Furthermore, as Libby makes clear in his publication, all "dates" higher than 5000 years BP are not absolute dates, but only measure residual C14. Dendrochronology does not help, either, since under certain conditions trees can grow two and sometimes three rings a year.
There is no Egyptian flood tradition in their literature. It is important to realize that recorded Egyptian history begins about 3000 BC. Egyptian prehistory was probably very short, with little time passing after the great Flood. Although Egyptian historians consider the prehistorical period to be quite long, as seen above, C14 dates are not useful before 3000 BC.
River Deltas Begin Forming Worldwide about 3000 BC .
Only the worldwide Flood was such a stupendous catastrophe as to make it possible for rivers worldwide to begin flowing at about the same time water on the landmass subsided into deepened oceans, rain fell, and rivers began depositing sediments at their mouths to form deltas. Investigations of these deltas worldwide have revealed that they are only a few thousand years old. The Tigris and Euphrates delta is formed in the Persian Gulf. Many maps of the earliest periods of history show the shoreline as far north as Ur. That means the delta has filled in at least 150 miles during recorded times. Herodotus, the Greek historian, reported that Egyptian priests told him none of the land north of Lake Moeris was above water at the beginning of the First Dynasty (p. 104). The Mississippi River delta was investigated in 1850 and found to be only 40 feet in depth. It has not been flowing very long. One other time-measuring feature -- Niagara Falls -- began falling and receding from Lake Ontario toward Lake Erie, less than 10,000 years ago. The point is that none of these rivers could have been flowing for more than a few thousand years.
- If the Flood occurred as early as 100,000, or as late as 10,000 BC, one cannot find a 7000 year (or larger) gap in Scripture, or in any of the literature of the Ancient Near East, for that matter, between the Flood and the beginning of historical records from 3000 BC.
- Nor can an explanation be found for the origin of families (nations) mentioned in Genesis 10-11.
- Cush was the grandson of Noah. The descendants of "Cush" built cities whose foundations date no earlier than 3000 BC in almost all cases (Genesis 10). Cities that are claimed to be older: Jericho (7000 BC), Jarmo (6000 BC), etc., were dated by C14 which cannot be calibrated by absolute dates earlier than 5000 years before the present. More caution should be used when considering these early dates.
- Ziggurats and pyramids are later than 3000 BC. If there were earlier civilizations, there is no trace of anything like ziggurats or pyramids at that time. A short time obviously elapsed between the Flood and their construction. But 7000 years? That is longer than the entire history of man since the Flood.
- Geneologies in Genesis 5 and 10 may be stretched slightly, but they cease to be geneologies if large gaps exist. Gaps of 7000 years make them meaningless for genealogical purposes.
The date of the Great Flood in relation to local floods in the Mesopotamian river basin is, at the present, impossible to determine since a universal Flood completely altered the surface of the earth. However, strong evidence given above suggests a date not long before 5000 BC.
- C14 is not useful in dating before 5000 B.P. according to the discoverer of the method.
- River deltas suggest a recent (ca. 3000 BC?) flood.
- All written history begins ca. 3000 BC.
- Foundations of cities began then.
- Families of mankind began then. Geneologies date back to it.
- A 10,000 BC (or earlier) flood wreaks havoc with geneologies.
- There is no record of a 10,000 BC flood in ANY of the literature.
- The Gilgamesh Epic (and other epics) fit well into a 3000 BC date.
- The biblical account did not derive from other literature. It is eyewitness testimony.
- It is clear from the biblical account that there was a universal flood about 3000 BC.
Green, W. H.,
1890 Primeval Chronology. Bibliotheca Sacra 48 . 286-303.
1965 (Reprint) The Histories. Baltimore: Penguin Classics.
Libby, W. F.,
1965 Radiocarbon Dating. Chicago: Phoenix Books.
1955 Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the Old Testament, 2nd Ed.
(abbrev. ANET) Princeton: University Press.
1966 Ancient Iraq. Suffolk, England: Penguin Books.
Saggs, W. F.,
1962 The Greatness That Was Babylon. New York: Mentor Books.
Longevity and the Written Word
Our technological development has only occurred as a result of an ability to store and access large quantities of preexisting data. The knowledge possessed by any one person or even a hundred is insignificant in comparison to the libraries of previous learning that have now been obtained, and without which advancement to our level would not have happened. These libraries of knowledge did not begin to develop until the written word was invented, and no archaeological evidence of even the most primitive forms of writing have been discovered earlier than ancient Babylon which followed the tower of Babel. Even several hundred years later, during the time of the Egyptians, only hieroglyphics were in use.
The development of symbolic language seemingly coincides with the decline in human longevity. Perhaps it was the shortened human lifespan that caused people to feel the need to write down their experiences or what had been learned. There had become a sense of urgency to preserve ones essence in some permanent form. It may have been this reduction in life expectancy more than anything else that induced the formation of the written word and ultimately the technological achievements we have made. Back when people lived to be 1000 years of age there was little need to archive knowledge. Most people would prefer to talk rather than write letters. If we could still talk to Galileo or Sir Isaac Newton, why would they bother to write down what they could more quickly say?
Before Noah: Myths of the Flood Are Far Older Than the Bible
D arren Aronofsky&rsquos Noah dominated the U.S. box office on its opening weekend and won critical acclaim, but not without controversy. The film, based on the biblical story in Genesis of Noah’s Ark and the Great Flood, arrived amid a deluge of outrage from religious groups. Some Christians fumed at the film&rsquos straying from biblical Scripture. Meanwhile, a host of Muslim-majority countries banned Noah from screening in theaters because representations of Noah, a prophet of God in the Koran, are considered blasphemous. Such images &ldquoprovoke the feelings of believers and are forbidden in Islam and a clear violation of Islamic law,&rdquo read a fatwa issued by Cairo&rsquos al-Azhar University, one of the foremost institutions of Sunni Islam. Egypt has not banned the film, but Indonesia, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates have. &ldquoIt is important to respect these religions and not show the film,&rdquo lectured the main censors of the UAE.
Aronofsky, an atheist, has no interest in defending his film&rsquos scriptural authenticity. Indeed, the director has described Noah as &ldquothe least biblical film ever made&rdquo and thinks of its chief protagonist in secular terms as the world&rsquos &ldquofirst environmentalist.&rdquo Noah is as much a parable for the modern threat of climate change as it is an Old Testament morality play.
But there&rsquos another reason why the angry religious crowd ought to check their outrage. The story of Noah may be part of the Abrahamic canon, but the legend of the Great Flood almost certainly has prebiblical origins, rooted in the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh dates back nearly 5,000 years and is thought to be perhaps the oldest written tale on the planet. In it, there is an account of the great sage Utnapishtim, who is warned of an imminent flood to be unleashed by wrathful gods. He builds a vast circular-shaped boat, reinforced with tar and pitch, that carries his relatives, grains and animals. After enduring days of storms, Utnapishtim, like Noah in Genesis, releases a bird in search of dry land.
Various archaeologists suggest there was a historical deluge between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago that hit lands ranging from the Black Sea to what many call the cradle of civilization, the flood plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The translation of ancient cuneiform tablets in the 19th century confirmed the Mesopotamian flood myth as an antecedent of the Noah story in the Bible. In an interview with the London Telegraph, Irving Finkel, a curator at the British Museum and author of the recent book The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, described one way the tradition may have emerged:
There must have been a heritage memory of the destructive power of flood water, based on various terrible floods. And the people who survived would have been people in boats. You can imagine someone sunbathing in a canoe, half asleep, and waking up however long later and they&rsquore in the middle of the Persian Gulf, and that&rsquos the beginning of the flood story.
Yet tales of the Flood spring from many sources. Myriad ancient cultures have their own legends of watery cataclysm and salvation. According to Vedic lore, a fish tells the mythic Indian king Manu of a flood that will wipe out humanity Manu then builds a ship to withstand the epic rains and is later led to a mountaintop by the same fish. An Aztec story sees a devout couple hide in the hollow of a vast tree with two ears of corn as divine storms drown the wicked of the land. Creation myths from Egypt to Scandinavia involve tidal floods of all sorts of substances &mdash including the blood of deities &mdash purging and remaking the earth.
Flood myths are so universal that the Hungarian psychoanalyst Geza Roheim thought their origins were physiological, not historical &mdash hypothesizing that dreams of the Flood came when humans were asleep with full bladders. The religious purists now upset with Hollywood probably don’t want to hear that it’s really just all about drinking too much water before bedtime.
Three ‘Great Flood’ Stories That Predate The Biblehree ‘Great Flood’ Stories That Predate The Bible
Evidence has been brought forward by a number of archaeologists who argue that a massive deluge swept across the Earth between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago.
Some argue that the historic flood may have happened, but not on a global scale, as there are those who argue that a flooding occurred in the area of what is today the Black Sea, an area many refer to as the ‘cradle of civilization’.
And while Noah’s story of the Flood may be one of the most popular ones, the truth is that it isn’t the only flood story out there.
Sumerian Flood Babylonian
In fact, there are a number of flood stories that predate the flood described in the Bible.
Flood myths can be traced back into the Bronze Age and Neolithic prehistory. Flood stories are often referred to as new starting points in human history.
1. Ancient Cuneiform Tablets and the Mesopotamian Flood
Translation of ancient cuneiform tablets discovered in the 19th century suggests the Mesopotamia Flood may have been an antecedent of Noah’s flood mentioned in the bible.
The ancient Sumerian Nippur tablet is believed to describe the oldest account of the Great Flood and the creation of both humans and animals on Earth.
It also records the names of Antediluvian cities on earth and their respective rulers.
In ancient Mesopotamian mythology, we find flood stories concerning the epics of Ziusudra, Gilgamesh, and Atrahasis.
In fact, the Sumerian King List divides its history into preflood (antediluvian) and postflood periods.
Before the flood had swept across the land, Earth was ruled by kings who had monstrous lifespans. In postflood myths, these lifespans were drastically reduced.
The Sumerian Flood story is described in the Deluge Tablet.
It narrates the epic of Ziusudra, who, after finding out that the Gods plan to destroy humanity with a great flood, constructs a massive vessel which eventually saves him from the rising waters.
In the Sumerian King List, we read about the history of mankind, its Gods and rulers before the flood.
The Sumerian King list suggests how Eridu was the first city on Earth.
In fact, according to Sumerian mythology, Eridu was one of the five ancient cities that were built on Earth before the Great Deluge.
The Sumerian King List reads:
“After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king he ruled for 28,800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36,000 years. 2 kings they ruled for 64,800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.
“In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36,000 years. 3 kings they ruled for 108,000 years… Then the flood swept over.”
After the Great Flood, Kish is mentioned as the first city of the Gods.
“After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish.”
A total of twenty-two kings ruled for a period of 16, 480 years, which make up the first dynasty of Kish.
2. The Aztec Story of the great flood
According to the ancient Aztecs, a massive flood swept across the lands.
No matter where we look, we find descriptions of a massive deluge that swept across the Earth in the distant past.
With a few differences, we can say that nearly all flood stories are similar in one way or another.
The Great Flood was supposedly sent by God or the gods upon the earth in order to destroy civilization as an act of divine punishment.
According to ancient mythology:
“Before the great flood which took place 4,800 years after the creation of the world, the country of Anahuac was inhabited by giants, all of whom either perished in the inundation or were transformed into fishes, save seven who fled into caverns.
“When the waters subsided, one of the giants, the great Xelhua, nicknamed the ‘Architect,’ traveled to Cholula, where, as a memorial of the Tlaloc which had served for an asylum to himself and his six brethren, he built an artificial hill in the form of a pyramid…”
Not far from the Aztecs we find another flood story sent by the Gods.
3. The Unu Pachakuti is, according to Incan mythology, a flood sent by the God Viracocha to destroy the people near Lake Titicaca. This great flood is said to have lasted for 60 days and 60 nights.
Before creating humans, Viracocha created a race of giants that inhabited Earth, but he destroyed them in a flood as they proved to be unruly. The giants were eventually turned into stone.
Viracocha, one of the most prominent Andean deities decides to save only two people, in the massive flood, giving mankind a fresh start, and bringing ‘civilization’ to the rest of the world.
A Pre-Flood Empire?
Genesis 4:22 tells us that pre-Flood men knew how to craft and work with bronze and iron.
Other than stressing humanity’s widespread evil, the Bible tells us very little about the culture of the world before Noah’s Flood. We are given a tiny glimpse of it when Genesis mentions the murderer and polygamist Lamech and his two wives, Adah and Zillah:
These verses show us that ancient man possessed the technological capabilities to make musical instruments and work with metals. But something else stands out in these verses. In a world that could have had millions of people by this time, why would the leaders of each of these industries come from the same family?
One possible solution is that these were the people living in Noah’s area who led these industries. But this idea seems to fall short since these individuals were said to be over “all those who play” and over “every craftsman.” Maybe this family possessed superior intellect or ingenuity, but this also seems unlikely given that man has been very intelligent from the beginning.
Perhaps Lamech ruled over much of the pre-Flood world, and he gave his sons control over these various industries. This idea would fit with his proud and boastful attitude ( Genesis 4:23–24 ).
Without clear instruction from Scripture, we cannot know with certainty why one family was at the forefront of these industries. Yet we can be sure that their world was destroyed by the global Flood, and only those on Noah’s Ark were spared.
The Institute for Creation Research
One of the strongest evidences for the global flood which annihilated all people on Earth except for Noah and his family, has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends in the folklore of people groups from around the world. And the stories are all so similar. Local geography and cultural aspects may be present but they all seem to be telling the same story.
Over the years I have collected more than 200 of these stories, originally reported by various missionaries, anthropologists, and ethnologists.
While the differences are not always trivial, the common essence of the stories is instructive as compiled below:
- Is there a favored family? 88%
- Were they forewarned? 66%
- Is flood due to wickedness of man? 66%
- Is catastrophe only a flood? 95%
- Was flood global? 95%
- Is survival due to a boat? 70%
- Were animals also saved? 67%
- Did animals play any part? 73%
- Did survivors land on a mountain? 57%
- Was the geography local? 82%
- Were birds sent out? 35%
- Was the rainbow mentioned? 7%
- Did survivors offer a sacrifice? 13%
- Were specifically eight persons saved? 9%
Putting them all back together, the story would read something like this:
Once there was a worldwide flood, sent by God to judge the wickedness of man. But there was one righteous family which was forewarned of the coming flood. They built a boat on which they survived the flood along with the animals. As the flood ended, their boat landed on a high mountain from which they descended and repopulated the whole earth.
Of course the story sounds much like the Biblical story of the great flood of Noah's day. The most similar accounts are typically from middle eastern cultures, but surprisingly similar legends are found in South America and the Pacific Islands and elsewhere. None of these stories contains the beauty, clarity, and believable detail given in the Bible, but each is meaningful to their own culture.
Anthropologists will tell you that a myth is often the faded memory of a real event. Details may have been added, lost, or obscured in the telling and retelling, but the kernel of truth remains. When two separate cultures have the same "myth" in their body of folklore, their ancestors must have either experienced the same event, or they both descended from a common ancestral source which itself experienced the event.
The only credible way to understand the widespread, similar flood legends is to recognize that all people living today, even though separated geographically, linguistically, and culturally, have descended from the few real people who survived a real global flood, on a real boat which eventually landed on a real mountain. Their descendants now fill the globe, never to forget the real event.
But, of course, this is not the view of most modern scholars. They prefer to believe that something in our commonly evolved psyche forces each culture to invent the same imaginary flood legend with no basis in real history. Instead of scholarship, this is "willful ignorance" of the fact that "the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished" (II Peter 3:5,6).
The Institute for Creation Research
Does any new evidence help to update these responses?
Fossilization, Runoff, and Pennsylvanian Coal
Low fossilization potential refers to the rarity of fossil formation because unique conditions are needed to preserve fragile remains. The Flood supplied those conditions, though. If humans have low fossilization potential, wouldn&rsquot land animals, too? Paleontologists have created online databases that map fossil land animal locations, sortable by geologic layering. Flood fossils formed in specific layers or in certain pockets where slowing sedimentary slurries transported plant and animal wreckage to a stop. They were not spread evenly around the world. So, in general, we know where to expect land mammal fossils, and they contain no undisputed human remains.
What about underwater mudflows? New earth science studies confirm that unimaginably catastrophic geological processes really happened. 2 Crustal plate motions would have produced numerous underwater mudflows. But because pre-Flood people presumably did not live on sea floors, we should not expect underwater mudflows to have ground up any people or large land mammals.
Waters racing off the continents in the later months of Noah&rsquos Flood could also have pulverized people and animals. Since 1992, creation geologists have searched for rocks that show a clear pre-Flood/post-Flood boundary, but experts remain divided. If fossils found right above dinosaurs represent post-Flood deposits, then the Flood fossilized very few land mammals like deer or dogs. In that case, floodwater runoff may have ground them all to powder or transported them unburied until they rotted. However, if many of the land animal fossils found above dinosaur layers represent late-Flood deposits, then these represent human-free, pre-Flood animal remains possibly buried by floodwater runoff. This again leaves the question of what happened to the humans unresolved. More research may help discern the better of these options.
Although we know of no undisputed human skeletal remains in Flood rocks, a few unique artifacts may have come from pre-Flood humans. These include an iron cup discovered in 1918 inside a lump of Pennsylvanian coal from Oklahoma, a brass bell inside a lump of West Virginia coal, and in 2013 an aluminum gear section in another Pennsylvanian coal mined in northern Mongolia. 3 Although these artifacts are intriguing, we need more thorough investigations that test against fraud before building a case on them.
What would a scientist who was convinced that modern-looking humans did not evolve until 2.5 million years ago think of a human fossil found in layers assigned to three or more million years? An answer came in 2011, when researchers demonstrated that a fossil foot bone exactly matched human anatomy. However, since its evolutionary age was just over three million years, they &ldquoconcluded&rdquo it was from an evolutionary ape-like human that had an ape&rsquos body but a human foot. 4 Of course, the human bone was not attached to or associated with any other bones&mdashlet alone ape bones. This and other examples give good reason to doubt that evolutionary researchers can weigh evidence objectively enough to ever admit to finding human fossils where they wouldn&rsquot expect them. Maybe there are human fossils mixed in ancient bone beds, and they simply go unreported or misidentified.
Worldwide Violence and Population Decline
Genesis 6:5 says of the pre-Flood world, &ldquoThen the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually,&rdquo and verse 11 says, &ldquoThe earth was also corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.&rdquo Everywhere was bad&mdashas bad as people can possibly get. Could the homicide rate have been so high that it curtailed or reduced the pre-Flood population?
We have a modern example. In 1956, Waorani tribesmen brutally murdered missionaries Nate Saint, Jim Elliot, and three others in the jungles of Ecuador, demonstrating their reputation for extreme violence. 5 Generations of intertribal murder raids whittled their numbers down to a pitiful band of 500. 6 But many Waorani listened to the gospel presented by the wife and sister of two of the murdered missionaries. Warlike behavior evaporated as former murderers and new generations began trusting and following the living Lord Jesus. Their population today approaches 2,500. Clearly, unchecked violence can shrink populations.
Also, Jewish tradition from the Book of Enoch, part of which appears to be quoted in Jude 1:14-15, says that perhaps most of the pre-Flood people murdered one another. We shouldn&rsquot lean too heavily on this for historical details, but we can lean on Scripture. It says the violence was so extreme it deserved worldwide judgment. Exceedingly high murder rates could have whittled down the ancient population, but Matthew 24 confirms that some still lived. In verse 39 Jesus said, &ldquoThe flood came and took them all away.&rdquo 7 The fewer their numbers, the less likely any fossils would be found.
Where Are Evolution&rsquos Fossils?
Dr. John Morris wrote in 1992:
If evolution is true, and humans have lived on Earth for three million years, many trillions have lived and died. Where are their fossils? This is the more vexing question. 1
What have we learned since then? That not only are evolution&rsquos human fossils still missing, but so is any other trace of their existence. Countless human bones should fill caves, crevices, and graveyards. Their ancient firepits and trash heaps should be found around every corner. Scientists have described a few extinct ape fossils and evidence of unfamiliar-looking humans, but their continued failure to find the human fossils expected from millions of years of evolution only intensifies this &ldquomore vexing question.&rdquo
Since 1992, archaeologists exploring ancient human civilizations have marveled at exquisite carvings, recorded amazingly detailed paintings, and uncovered expert architecture like that at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey. None of these artifacts belong to the evolutionary story&rsquos apelike pre-civilized humans. Instead, they spring up suddenly in human history, revealing that our first ancestors had at least as much intelligence and abilities as we have. It&rsquos as though our original forefathers stepped off a ship into the Middle East with no evolutionary backstory. According to Genesis, Noah&rsquos grandsons built a new society immediately after the Flood. So the near-absence of human fossils refutes human evolution and confirms what the Bible says about Noah&rsquos descendants.
Where are all the pre-Flood human fossils? Well, the high murder rates that Genesis 6 suggests, plus other factors like catastrophic flooding, floodwater sorting, and even investigator bias, indicate we might not expect to find many after all. Meanwhile, evolution&rsquos expected pre-civilization human fossils remain missing.
- Morris, J. 1992. Why Don&rsquot We Find More Human Fossils?Acts & Facts. 21 (1).
- Clarey, T. 2014. Runaway Subduction and Deep Catastrophic Earthquakes. Acts & Facts. 43 (1): 18-19.
- Thomas, B. Possible Human Artifact Found in Coal. Creation Science Update. Posted on icr.org February 20, 2013, accessed September 2, 2015.
- Ward, C. V., W. H. Kimbel, and D. C. Johanson. 2011. Complete Fourth Metatarsal and Arches in the Foot of Australopithecus afarensis. Science. 331 (6018): 750-753.
- &ldquoThe Waorani have been considered as the most warlike society yet described owing to exceptionally high homicide rates.&rdquo Cardoso, S., et al. 2012. Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon. Heredity. 108 (6): 609-615.
- Beckerman, S., et al. 2009. Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (20): 8134-8139.
- Matthew 24:39.
* Mr. Thomas is Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research.
4 The Epic Of Atrahasis
A Babylonian clay tablet written in the Akkadian language tells the epic of Atrahasis. Long ago, the gods had to dig out canals and rivers by themselves. They grew tired of this and went on strike. The chief god, Enlil, decided to create human beings from a goddess&rsquos blood and clay.
Over 1,000 years, humans populated the Earth. But Enlil started to go a bit crazy from listening to all their noise. He commanded the disease god to spread a plague. A human named Atrahasis prayed to the gods, asking for mercy.
Enki, the god of the sea, gave him the insider tip to pray to Namtar, the god of plagues, rather than &ldquothe gods&rdquo plural. Suddenly, Namtar was barraged with prayers from humans to stop the plague. It drove him crazy, so he ended the plague.
Enlil was angry and tried killing people with a drought instead. After six years of famine, people resorted to cannibalism. Enki felt so sorry for humans that he took fish from the sea and let it rain food on the people. Enlil caught Enki interfering with his plan and commanded Enki to wipe out mankind with a worldwide flood.
Enki knew that he had to obey his chief god. But Enki warned Atrahasis that he needed to build a large double-decker ark that was sealed with tar. Atrahasis decided to take all the plants and animals he could and told the wisest elders to get on the boat with him. It rained for seven days and seven nights, causing a flood across the Earth. 
The mother goddess was horrified at what Enlil had done. Desperate to continue humanity, she proposed that the new generation of humans have population controls in place instead of breeding like rabbits.
She created miscarriages and stillbirths. There would also be periodic natural disasters to randomly reduce the population. Enlil decided that this was a good compromise to keep humans under control, so he allowed Atrahasis to rebuild civilization.