Door pivot stone from Girsu

Door pivot stone from Girsu

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Architecture of Mesopotamia

The architecture of Mesopotamia is ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built in the 6th century BC. Among the Mesopotamian architectural accomplishments are the development of urban planning, the courtyard house, and ziggurats. No architectural profession existed in Mesopotamia however, scribes drafted and managed construction for the government, nobility, or royalty.

The study of ancient Mesopotamian architecture is based on available archaeological evidence, pictorial representation of buildings, and texts on building practices. According to Archibald Sayce, the primitive pictographs of the Uruk period era suggest that "Stone was scarce, but was already cut into blocks and seals. Brick was the ordinary building material, and with it cities, forts, temples and houses were constructed. The city was provided with towers and stood on an artificial platform the house also had a tower-like appearance. It was provided with a door which turned on a hinge, and could be opened with a sort of key the city gate was on a larger scale, and seems to have been double. . Demons were feared who had wings like a bird, and the foundation stones – or rather bricks – of a house were consecrated by certain objects that were deposited under them." [1]

Scholarly literature usually concentrates on the architecture of temples, palaces, city walls and gates, and other monumental buildings, but occasionally one finds works on residential architecture as well. [2] Archaeological surface surveys also allowed for the study of urban form in early Mesopotamian cities.


The earliest recorded doors appear in the paintings of Egyptian tombs, which show them as single or double doors, each of a single piece of wood. People may have believed these were doors to the afterlife, and some include designs of the afterlife. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, doors weren't framed against warping, but in other countries required framed doors—which, according to Vitruvius (iv. 6.) was done with stiles (sea/si) and rails (see: Frame and panel), the enclosed panels filled with tympana set in grooves in the stiles and rails. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails.

The most ancient doors were made of timber, such as those referred to in the Biblical depiction of King Solomon's temple being in olive wood (I Kings vi. 31-35), which were carved and overlaid with gold. The doors that Homer mentions appear to have been cased in silver or brass. Besides olive wood, elm, cedar, oak and cypress were used. A 5,000-year-old door has been found by archaeologists in Switzerland. [2]

Ancient doors were hung by pivots at the top and bottom of the hanging stile, which worked in sockets in the lintel and sill, the latter in some hard stone such as basalt or granite. Those Hilprecht found at Nippur, dating from 2000 BC, were in dolerite. The tenons of the gates at Balawat were sheathed with bronze (now in the British Museum). These doors or gates were hung in two leaves, each about 2.54 m (100 in) wide and 8.2 m (27 ft) high they were encased with bronze bands or strips, 25.4 cm (10.0 in) high, covered with repoussé decoration of figures. The wood doors would seem to have been about 7.62 cm (3.00 in) thick, but the hanging stile was over 360 millimetres (14 in) diameter. Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze show this was a universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In the Hauran in Syria where timber is scarce, the doors were made of stone, and one measuring 1.63 m (5.3 ft) by 0.79 m (31 in) is in the British Museum the band on the meeting stile shows that it was one of the leaves of a double door. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 2.74 to 3.048 m (8.99 to 10.00 ft) high, being the entrance doors of the town. In Etruria many stone doors are referred to by Dennis.

Ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, triple doors, sliding doors or folding doors, in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. In the tomb of Theron at Agrigentum there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. In the Blundell collection is a bas-relief of a temple with double doors, each leaf with five panels. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of SS. Cosmas and Damiano, in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal work of the best period they are in two leaves, each with two panels, and are framed in bronze. Those of the Pantheon are similar in design, with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top, bottom and middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica.

The Greek scholar Heron of Alexandria created the earliest known automatic door in the 1st century AD during the era of Roman Egypt. [3] The first foot-sensor-activated automatic door was made in China during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–618), who had one installed for his royal library. [3] The first automatic gate operators were later created in 1206 by Arab inventor Al-Jazari. [4] [ need quotation to verify ]

Copper and its alloys were integral in medieval architecture. The doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century) are covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns. Those of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze, and the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (9th century), of similar manufacture, were probably brought from Constantinople, as also some of those in St. Marks, Venice. The bronze doors on the Aachen Cathedral in Germany date back to about 800 AD. Bronze baptistery doors at the Cathedral of Florence were completed in 1423 by Ghiberti. [5] (For more information, see: Copper in architecture).

Of the 11th and 12th centuries there are numerous examples of bronze doors, the earliest being one at Hildesheim, Germany (1015). The Hildesheim design affected the concept of Gniezno door in Poland. Of others in South Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant Andrea, Amalfi (1060) Salerno (1099) Canosa (1111) Troia, two doors (1119 and 1124) Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made doors for Trani cathedral and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by Bonano of Pisa. In all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the top and bottom. The exact period when the builder moved to the hinge is unknown, but the change apparently brought about another method of strengthening and decorating doors—wrought-iron bands of various designs. As a rule, three bands with ornamental work constitute the hinges, with rings outside the hanging stiles that fit on vertical tenons set into the masonry or wooden frame. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln. In France, the metalwork of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is a beautiful example, but many others exist throughout France and England.

In Italy, celebrated doors include those of the Battistero di San Giovanni (Florence), which are all in bronze—including the door frames. The modeling of the figures, birds and foliage of the south doorway, by Andrea Pisano (1330), and of the east doorway by Ghiberti (1425–1452), are of great beauty. In the north door (1402–1424), Ghiberti adopted the same scheme of design for the paneling and figure subjects as Andrea Pisano, but in the east door, the rectangular panels are all filled, with bas-reliefs that illustrate Scripture subjects and innumerable figures. These may the gates of Paradise of which Michelangelo speaks.

Doors of the mosques in Cairo were of two kinds: those externally cased with sheets of bronze or iron, cut in decorative patterns, and incised or inlaid, with bosses in relief and those of wood-framed with interlaced square and diamond designs. The latter design is Coptic in origin. The doors of the palace at Palermo, which were made by Saracenic workmen for the Normans, are fine examples in good preservation. A somewhat similar decorative class of door is found in Verona, where the edges of the stiles and rails are beveled and notched.

In the Renaissance period, Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. While in Italy the tendency was to give scale by increasing the number of panels, in France the contrary seems to have been the rule and one of the great doors at Fontainebleau, which is in two leaves, is entirely carried out as if consisting of one great panel only.

The earliest Renaissance doors in France are those of the cathedral of St. Sauveur at Aix (1503). In the lower panels there are figures 3 ft (0.91 m). high in Gothic niches, and in the upper panels a double range of niches with figures about 2 ft (0.61 m). high with canopies over them, all carved in cedar. The south door of Beauvais Cathedral is in some respects the finest in France the upper panels are carved in high relief with figure subjects and canopies over them. The doors of the church at Gisors (1575) are carved with figures in niches subdivided by classic pilasters superimposed. In St. Maclou at Rouen are three magnificently carved doors those by Jean Goujon have figures in niches on each side, and others in a group of great beauty in the center. The other doors, probably about forty to fifty years later, are enriched with bas-reliefs, landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders.

NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center contains the four largest doors. The Vehicle Assembly Building was originally built for the assembly of the Apollo missions' Saturn vehicles and was then used to support Space Shuttle operations. Each of the four doors are 139 meters (456 feet) high. [6]

The oldest door in England can be found in Westminster Abbey and dates from 1050. [7] In England in the 17th century the door panels were raised with bolection or projecting moldings, sometimes richly carved, around them in the 18th century the moldings worked on the stiles and rails were carved with the egg-and-dart ornament.

Fragment from an Ancient Egyptian tomb door, circa 2150 –1981 BC, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Rococo door on Rue Monsieur-le-Prince (Paris)

Louis XVI door of the Hôtel Mortier de Sandreville, on Rue des Francs-Bourgeois (Paris)

African door with lock, late 19th or early 20th century, wood with iron, from Burkina Faso, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City)

Gothic Revival door on Rue Malebranche (Paris)

Egyptian Revival door of a mausoleum in the Forest Home Cemetery (Wisconsin, US)

19th century Eclectic Classicist door on Rue La Bruyère (Paris)

Art Nouveau metal and glass door in Nancy (France), with a big transparent awning above it

There are many kinds of doors, with different purposes. The most common type is the single-leaf door, which consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway. There are many variations on this basic design, such as the double-leaf door or double door and French windows, which have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway.

  • A half door or Dutch door[8] or stable door is divided in half horizontally. Traditionally the top half opens so a worker can feed a horse or other animal while the bottom half remains closed to keep the animal inside. This style of door has been adapted for homes.
  • Saloon doors are a pair of lightweight swing doors often found in public bars, and especially associated with the American west. Saloon doors, also known as cafe doors, often use bidirectional hinges that close the door regardless of which direction it opens by incorporating springs. Saloon doors that only extend from knee-level to chest-level are known as batwing doors.
  • A blind door, Gibb door, or jib door has no visible trim or operable components. It blends with the adjacent wall in all finishes, to appear as part of the wall—a disguised door. [9]
  • A French door consists of a frame around one or more transparent or translucent panels (called lights or lites) that may be installed singly, in matching pairs, or even as series. A matching pair of these doors is called a French window, as it resembles a door-height casement window. When a pair of French doors is used as a French window, the application does not generally include a central mullion (as do some casement window pairs), thus allowing a wider unobstructed opening. The frame typically requires a weather strip at floor level and where the doors meet to prevent water ingress. An espagnolette bolt may let the head and foot of each door be secured in one movement. The slender window joinery maximizes light into the room and minimizes the visual impact of the doorway joinery when considered externally. The doors of a French window often open outward onto a balcony, porch, or terrace and they may provide an entrance to a garden.
  • A louvered door has fixed or movable wooden fins (often called slats or louvers) which permit open ventilation while preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. Being relatively weak structures, they are most commonly used for wardrobes and drying rooms, where security is of less importance than good ventilation, although a very similar structure is commonly used to form window shutters. Double louvred doors were introduced into Seagate, built in Florida in 1929 by Gwendolyn and Powel Crosley, that provided the desired circulation of air with an added degree of privacy in that it is impossible to see through the fins in any direction.
  • A composite door is a single leaf door that can be solid or with glass, and is usually filled with high density foam. In the United Kingdom, composite doors are commonly certified to BS PAS 23/24 [10] and be compliant with Secured by Design, an official UK police initiative. [11]
  • A steel security door is one which is made from strong steel, often for use on vaults and safe rooms to withstand attack. These may also be fitted with wooden outer panels to resemble standard internal and external doors. [12]
  • A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or MDF fixed over a light timber frame, the hollow parts of which are often filled with a cardboard core material. Skins can also be made out of hardboards, the first of which was invented by William H Mason in 1924. Called Masonite, its construction involved pressing and steaming wood chips into boards. Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although slightly more substantial versions are occasionally used as exterior doors, especially within hotels and other buildings containing many independent dwellings.
  • A moulded door has the same structure as that of flush door. The only difference is that the surface material is a moulded skin made of MDF. Skins can also be made out of hardboards.
  • A ledge and brace door often called board and batten doors are made from multiple vertical boards fixed together by two or more horizontal timbers called ledges (or battens)and sometimes kept square by additional diagonal timbers called braces.
  • A wicket door is a pedestrian door built into a much larger door allowing access without requiring the opening of the larger door. Examples might be found on the ceremonial door of a cathedral or in a large vehicle door in a garage or hangar.
  • A bifold door is a unit that has several sections, folding in pairs. Wood is the most common material, and doors may also be metal or glass. Bifolds are most commonly made for closets, but may also be used as units between rooms. Bi-fold doors are essentially now doors that let the outside in. They open in concert where the panels fold up against one another and are pushed together when opened. The main door panel (often known as the traffic door) is accompanied by a stack of panels that fold very neatly against one another when opened fully, which almost look like room dividers. [13]
  • A sliding glass door, sometimes called an Arcadia door or patio door, is a door made of glass that slides open and sometimes has a screen (a removable metal mesh that covers the door).
  • Australian doors are a pair of plywood swinging doors often found in Australian public houses. These doors are generally red or brown in color and bear a resemblance to the more formal doors found in other British Colonies' public houses.
  • A false door is a wall decoration that looks like a window. In ancient Egyptian architecture, this was a common element in a tomb, the false door representing a gate to the afterlife. They can also be found in the funerary architecture of the desert tribes (e.g., Libyan Ghirza).
  • A doormat (also called door mat) is a mat placed typically in front of or behind a door of a home. This practice originated so that mud and dirt would be less prevalent on floors inside a building.

Hinged doors Edit

Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening.

Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward.

A swing door has special single-action hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed.

French doors are derived from an original French design called the casement door. It is a door with lites where all or some panels would be in a casement door. A French door traditionally has a moulded panel at the bottom of the door. It is called a French window when used in a pair as double-leaved doors with large glass panels in each door leaf, and in which the doors may swing out (typically) as well as in.

A Mead door, developed by S Mead of Leicester, swings both ways. It is susceptible to forced entry due to its design.

A Dutch door or stable door consists of two halves. The top half operates independently from the bottom half. A variant exists in which opening the top part separately is possible, but because the lower part has a lip on the inside, closing the top part, while leaving the lower part open, is not.

A garden door resembles a French window (with lites), but is more secure because only one door is operable. The hinge of the operating door is next to the adjacent fixed door and the latch is located at the wall opening jamb rather than between the two doors or with the use of an espagnolette bolt.

Sliding doors Edit

It is often useful to have doors which slide along tracks, often for space or aesthetic considerations.

A bypass door is a door unit that has two or more sections. The doors can slide in either direction along one axis on parallel overhead tracks, sliding past each other. They are most commonly used in closets to provide access one side of the closet at a time. Doors in a bypass unit overlap slightly when viewed from the front so they don't have a visible gap when closed.

Doors which slide inside a wall cavity are called pocket doors. This type of door is used in tight spaces where privacy is also required. The door slab is mounted to roller and a track at the top of the door and slides inside a wall.

Sliding glass doors are common in many houses, particularly as an entrance to the backyard. Such doors are also popular for use for the entrances to commercial structures, although they are not counted as fire exit doors. The door that moves is called the "active leaf", while the door that remains fixed is called the "inactive leaf".

Rotating doors Edit

A revolving door has several wings or leaves, generally four, radiating from a central shaft, forming compartments that rotate about a vertical axis. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out.

A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings.

High-speed door Edit

A high-speed door is a very fast door some with opening speeds of up to 4 m/s, mainly used in the industrial sector where the speed of a door has an effect on production logistics, temperature and pressure control. high-speed clean room doors are used in pharmaceutical industries for the special curtain and stainless steel frames. They guarantee the tightness of all accesses. The powerful high-speed doors have a smooth surface structure and no protruding edges. Therefore, they can be easily cleaned and depositing of particles is largely excluded.

High-speed doors are made to handle a high number of openings, generally more than 200,000 a year. They must be built with heavy duty parts and counterbalance systems for speed enhancement and emergency opening function. The door curtain was originally made of PVC, but was later also developed in aluminium and acrylic glass sections. High Speed refrigeration and cold room doors with excellent insulation values was also introduced with the Green and Energy saving requirements.

In North America, the Door and Access Systems Manufacturing Association (DASMA) defines high-performance doors as non-residential, powered doors, characterized by rolling, folding, sliding or swinging action, that are either high-cycle (minimum 100 cycles/day) or high-speed (minimum 20 inches(508 mm)/second), and two out of three of the following: made-to-order for exact size and custom features, able to withstand equipment impact (break-away if accidentally hit by vehicle), or able to sustain heavy use with minimal maintenance.

Automatic Edit

Automatically opening doors are powered open and closed either by electricity, spring, or both. There are several methods by which an automatically opening door is activated:

  1. A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally:
    • A pressure sensor – e.g., a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it.
    • An infraredcurtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors if someone or something blocks the beam the door is triggered open.
    • A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar for the same effect.
    • A remote sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable remote control, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors.
  2. A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card.
  3. The act of pushing or pulling the door triggers the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors.

In addition to activation sensors, automatically opening doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. These are usually an infrared curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. The safety sensor prevents the door from colliding with an object by stopping or slowing its motion. A mechanism in modern automatic doors ensures that the door can open in a power failure.

Others Edit

Up-and-over or overhead doors are often used in garages. Instead of hinges, it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, so it can lift and rest horizontally above the opening. A roller shutter or sectional overhead door is one variant of this type.

A tambour door or roller door is an up-and-over door made of narrow horizontal slats and "rolls" up and down by sliding along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets.

Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened (or forced open) from outside a building. Such doors pose a substantial fire risk to occupants of occupied buildings when they are locked. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, building occupants would be prevented from escaping. In commercial and retail situations, manufacturers include a mechanism that lets an inward opening door open outwards in an emergency (often a regulatory requirement). This is called a 'breakaway' feature. Pushing the door outward at its closed position, through a switch mechanism, disconnects power to the latch and lets the door swing outward. Returning the door to the closed position restores power.

Rebated doors, a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap (i.e. a Rabbet) on the vertical edge(s) where they meet. Fire-rating can be achieved with an applied edge-guard or astragal molding on the meeting stile, in accordance with the American Fire door.

Evolution Door is a trackless door that moves in the same closure level as a sliding door. The system is an invention of the Austrian artist Klemens Torggler. It is a further development of the Drehplattentür [de] that normally consists of two rotatable, connected panels which move to each other when opening. [14]

Architectural doors have numerous general and specialized uses. Doors are generally used to separate interior spaces (closets, rooms, etc.) for convenience, privacy, safety, and security reasons. Doors are also used to secure passages into a building from the exterior, for reasons of climate control and safety. [15]

Doors also are applied in more specialized cases:

  • A Blast-proof door is constructed to allow access to a structure as well as to provide protection from the force of explosions.
  • A garden door is any door that opens to a backyard or garden. This term is often used specifically for French windows, double French doors (with lites instead of panels), in place of a sliding glass door. The term also may refer to what is known as patio doors. [citation needed]
  • A jib door is a concealed door, whose surface reflects the moldings and finishes of the wall. These were used in historic English houses, mainly as servants' doors. [citation needed]
  • A pet door (also known as a cat flap or dog door) is an opening in a door to allow pets to enter and exit without the main door's being opened. It may be simply covered by a rubber flap, or it may be an actual door hinged on the top that the pet can push through. Pet doors may be mounted in a sliding glass door as a new (permanent or temporary) panel. Pet doors may be unidirectional, only allowing pets to exit. Additionally, pet doors may be electronic, only allowing animals with a special electronic tag to enter.
  • A trapdoor is a door that is oriented horizontally in a ceiling or floor, often accessed via a ladder.
  • A water door or water entrance, such as those used in Venice, Italy, is a door leading from a building built on the water, such as a canal, to the water itself where, for example, one may enter or exit a private boat or water taxi. [16][17]

Panel doors Edit

Panel doors, also called stile and rail doors, are built with frame and panel construction. EN 12519 is describing the terms which are officially used in European Member States. The main parts are listed below:

    – Vertical boards that run the full height of a door and compose its right and left edges. The hinges are mounted to the fixed side (known as the "hanging stile"), and the handle, lock, bolt or latch are mounted on the swinging side (known as the "latch stile"). – Horizontal boards at the top, bottom, and optionally in the middle of a door that join the two stiles and split the door into two or more rows of panels. The "top rail" and "bottom rail" are named for their positions. The bottom rail is also known as "kick rail". A middle rail at the height of the bolt is known as the "lock rail", other middle rails are commonly known as "cross rails". – Smaller optional vertical boards that run between two rails, and split the door into two or more columns of panels, the term is used sometimes for verticals in doors, but more often (UK and Australia) it refers to verticals in windows.
  • Muntin – Optional vertical members that divide the door into smaller panels.
  • Panels – Large, wider boards used to fill the space between the stiles, rails, and mullions. The panels typically fit into grooves in the other pieces, and help to keep the door rigid. Panels may be flat, or in raised panel designs. Can be glued in or stay as a floating panel.
  • Light – a piece of glass used in place of a panel, essentially giving the door a window.

Board batten doors Edit

Also known as ledges and braced, Board and batten doors are an older design consisting primarily of vertical slats:

  • Planks – Boards wider than 9" that extend the full height of the door, and are placed side by side filling the door's width.
  • Ledges and braces – Ledges extend horizontally across the door which the boards are affixed to. The ledges hold the planks together. When diagonally they are called braces which prevent the door from skewing. On some doors, especially antique ones, the ledges are replaced with iron bars that are often built into the hinges as extensions of the door-side plates.

Ledged and braced doors Edit

As board and Batten doors

Impact-resistant doors Edit

Impact-resistant doors have rounded stile edges to dissipate energy and minimize edge chipping, scratching and denting. The formed edges are often made of an engineered material. Impact-resistant doors excel in high traffic areas such as hospitals, schools, hotels and coastal areas.

Frame and filled doors Edit

This type consists of a solid timber frame, filled on one face, face with Tongue and Grooved boards. Quite often used externally with the boards on the weather face.

Flush doors Edit

Many modern doors, including most interior doors, are flush doors:

    and rails – As above, but usually smaller. They form the outside edges of the door.
  • Core material: Material within the door used simply to fill space, provide rigidity and reduce drumminess.
    • Hollow-core – Often consists of a lattice or honeycomb made of corrugated cardboard, or thin wooden slats. Can also be built with staggered wooden blocks. Hollow-core flush doors are commonly used as interior doors.
      • Lock block – A solid block of wood mounted within a hollow-core flush door near the bolt to provide a solid and stable location for mounting the door's hardware.

      Moulded doors Edit

        and rails – As above, but usually smaller. They form the outside edges of the door.
    • Core material: Material within the door used simply to fill space, provide rigidity and reduce druminess.
      • Hollow-core – Often consists of a lattice or honeycomb made of corrugated cardboard, extruded polystyrene foam, or thin wooden slats. Can also be built with staggered wooden blocks. Hollow-core molded doors are commonly used as interior doors. [18]
        • Lock block – A solid block of wood mounted within a hollow-core flush door near the bolt to provide a solid and stable location for mounting the door's hardware.

        Swing direction Edit

        Door swings For most of the world [ citation needed ] , door swings, or handing, are determined while standing on the outside or less secure side of the door while facing the door (i.e., standing on the side requiring a key to open, going from outside to inside, or from public to private).

        It is important to get the hand and swing correct on exterior doors, as the transom is usually sloped and sealed to resist water entry, and properly drain. In some custom millwork (or with some master carpenters), the manufacture or installer bevels the leading edge (the first edge to meet the jamb as the door closes) so that the door fits tight without binding. Specifying an incorrect hand or swing can make the door bind, not close properly, or leak. Fixing this error is expensive or time-consuming. In North America, many doors now come with factory-installed hinges, pre-hung on the jamb and sills.

        While facing the door from the outside or less secure side, if the hinge is on the right side of the door, the door is "right handed" or if the hinge is on the left, it is "left handed". If the door swings toward you, it is "reverse swing" or if the door swings away from you, it is "Normal swing".

        • In the United States:
          • Left hand hinge (LHH): Standing outside (or on the less secure side, or on the public side of the door), the hinges are on the left and the door opens in (away from you).
          • Right hand hinge (RHH): Standing outside (or on the less secure side), the hinges are on the right and the door opens in (away from you).
          • Left hand reverse (LHR): Standing outside the house (or on the less secure side), the hinges are on the left, knob on right, on opening the door it swings towards you (i.e. the door swings open towards the outside, or "outswing")
          • Right hand reverse (RHR): Standing outside the house (i.e. on the less secure side), the hinges are on the right, knob on left, opening the door by pulling the door towards you (i.e. open swings to the outside, or "outswing")

          One of the oldest DIN standard applies: DIN 107 "Building construction identification of right and left side" (first 1922–05, current 1974-04) defines that doors are categorized from the side where the door hinges can be seen. If the hinges are on the left, it is a DIN Left door (DIN links, DIN gauche), if the hinges are on the right, it is a DIN Right door (DIN rechts, DIN droite). The DIN Right and DIN Left marking are also used to categorize matching installation material such as mortise locks (referenced in DIN 107). The European Standard DIN EN 12519 "Windows and pedestrian doors. Terminology" includes these definitions of orientation.

          The "refrigerator rule" applies, and a refrigerator door is not opened from the inside. If the hinges are on the right then it is a right hand (or right hung) door. (Australian Standards for Installation of Timber Doorsets, AS 1909–1984 pg 6.)

          In public buildings, exterior doors open to the outside to comply with applicable fire codes. In a fire, a door that opens inward could cause a crush of people who can't open it. [19]

          Types Edit

          New exterior doors are largely defined by the type of materials they are made from: wood, steel, fiberglass, UPVC/vinyl, aluminum, composite, glass (patio doors).

          Wooden doors – including solid wood doors – are a top choice for many homeowners, largely because of the aesthetic qualities of wood. Many wood doors are custom-made, but they have several downsides: their price, their maintenance requirements (regular painting and staining) and their limited insulating value [20] (R-5 to R-6, not including the effects of the glass elements of the doors). Wood doors often have an overhang requirement to maintain a warranty. An overhang is a roof, porch area or awning that helps to protect the door and its finish from UV rays.

          Steel doors are another major type of residential front doors most of them come with a polyurethane or other type of foam insulation core – a critical factor in a building's overall comfort and efficiency. Steel doors mostly in default comes along with frame and lock system, which is a high cost efficiency factor compared to Wooden doors.

          Most modern exterior walls provide thermal insulation and energy efficiency, which can be indicated by the Energy Star label or the Passive House standards. Premium composite (including steel doors with a thick core of polyurethane or other foam), fiberglass and vinyl doors benefit from the materials they are made from, from a thermal perspective.

          Insulation and weatherstrips Edit

          But there are very few door models with an R-value close to 10 (which is far less than the R-40 walls or the R-50 ceilings of super-insulated buildings – Passive Solar and Zero Energy Buildings). Typical doors are not thick enough to provide very high levels of energy efficiency.

          Many doors may have good R-values at their center, but their overall energy efficiency is reduced because of the presence of glass and reinforcing elements, or because of poor weatherstripping and the way the door is manufactured.

          Door weatherstripping is particularly important for energy efficiency. German-made passive house doors use multiple weatherstrips, including magnetic strips, to meet higher standards. These weatherstrips reduce energy losses due to air leakage.

          Dimensions Edit

          United States Edit

          Standard door sizes in the US run along 2" increments. Customary sizes have a height of 78" (1981 mm) or 80" (2032 mm) and a width of 18" (472 mm), 24" (610 mm), 26" (660 mm), 28" (711 mm), 30" (762 mm) or 36" (914 mm). [21] Most residential passage (room to room) doors are 30" x 80" (762 mm x 2032 mm).

          A standard US residential (exterior) door size is 36" x 80" (91 x 203 cm). Interior doors for wheelchair access must also have a minimum width of 3'-0" (91 cm). Residential interior doors are often somewhat smaller being 6'-8" high, as are many small stores, offices, and other light commercial buildings. Larger commercial, public buildings and grand homes often use doors of greater height. Older buildings often have smaller doors.

          Thickness: Most pre-fabricated doors are 1 3/8" thick (for interior doors) or 1 3/4" (exterior).

          Closets: small spaces such as closets, dressing rooms, half-baths, storage rooms, cellars, etc. often are accessed through doors smaller than passage doors in one or both dimensions but similar in design.

          Garages: Garage doors are generally 7'-0" or 8'-0" wide for a single-car opening. Two car garage doors (sometimes called double car doors) are a single door 16'-0". Because of size and weight these doors are usually sectional. That is split into four or five horizontal sections so that they can be raised more easily and don't require a lot of additional space above the door when opening and closing. Single piece double garage doors are common in some older homes.

          Europe Edit

          Standard DIN doors are defined in DIN 18101 (published 1955–07, 1985–01, 2014-08). Door sizes are also given in the construction standard for wooden door panels (DIN 68706-1). The DIN commission created the harmonized European standard DIN EN 14351-1 for exterior doors and DIN EN 14351-2 for interior doors (published 2006–07, 2010-08), which define requirements for the CE marking and provide standard sizes by examples in the appendix.

          The DIN 18101 standard has a normative size (Nennmaß) slightly larger than the panel size (Türblatt) as the standard derives the panel sizes from the normative size being different single door vs double door and molded vs unmolded doors. DIN 18101/1985 defines interior single molded doors to have a common panel height of 1985 mm (normativ height 2010 mm) at panel widths of 610 mm, 735 mm, 860 mm, 985 mm, 1110 mm, plus a larger door panel size of 1110 mm x 2110 mm. [22] The newer DIN 18101/2014 drops the definition of just five standard door sizes in favor of a basic raster running along 125 mm increments where the height and width are independent. Panel width may be in the range 485 mm to 1360 mmm, and the height may be in the range of 1610 mm to 2735 mm. [23] The most common interior door is 860 mm x 1985 mm (33.8" x 78.1").

          Doorway components Edit

          When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom. When a door has more than one movable section, one of the sections may be called a leaf. See door furniture for a discussion of attachments to doors such as door handles, doorknobs, and door knockers.

            – A horizontal beam above a door that supports the wall above it. (Also known as a header) or legs – The vertical posts that form the sides of a door frame, where the hinges are mounted, and with which the bolt interacts.
        • Sill (for exterior doors) – A horizontal sill plate below the door that supports the door frame. Similar to a Window Sill but for a door (for exterior doors) – A horizontal plate below the door that bridges the crack between the interior floor and the sill. – a thin slat built inside the frame to prevent a door from swinging through when closed, an act which might break the hinges. – The decorative molding that outlines a door frame. (called an Archivolt if the door is arched). Called door casing or brickmold in North America.
        • Front door of a house with typical door furniture: a letter box, door knocker, a latch and two locks

          Stone Doors, Hampi – Remnants of a Glorious Past

          The Stone Doors in Hampi are an impressive pair of monolith doors that were once part of one of the entrances of the Royal Enclosure in Hampi.

          Located near the Mahanavami Dibba platform in the Royal Enclosure, the remarkable stone doors are believed to be a part of the imposing fortification of the enclosed area during the period of the Vijayanagara Empire.

          The stone doors are one of the prominent remnants of the Vijayanagara period that can be seen among the ruins in Hampi. Though the huge doors are no longer attached to any structure and are not functional in any way, they do not fail to capture the interest of the visitors.

          Stone doors in Hampi. Photographer Shriram Swaminathan

          Quick Facts

          • Timing: 8:00 AM – 6:00 PM on all days of the week
          • Entry Fee: No entry fee required
          • Photography: Allowed
          • Video Camera: Allowed
          • Visit Duration: About 30 min
          • Best time to visit: From November to February

          History of Stone Doors, Hampi

          The stone doors in Hampi were a part of the Royal Enclosure. The enclosure was a fortified area that was once the core of the Vijayanagara Empire. It was a place where the royal family of Vijayanagara used to live. Spread over a huge area of 59,000 square metres, the Royal Enclosure was a well-guarded and secured place.

          The double-wall protected area had three entrances. Two of these entrances were on the northern side while one was on the western side of the enclosure.

          It is believed that each entrance had massive doorways to offer protection to the area. One of the entrances on the northern side is located near the Mahanavami Dibba platform. The stone doors are supposed to be a part of this entrance.

          They can be seen lying on the ground, not far from the Mahanavami Dibba platform. The stone doors were built during the period of the Vijayanagara Empire.

          Architecture of Stone Doors, Hampi

          The exquisitely carved stone doors display the skill of the craftsmen of the Vijayanagara era. Each stone door was sculpted out of a single huge boulder. The doors have door bolts and pivot shafts attached to them even today.

          They are remarkable in the sense that such doors are known to be part of the temples of the Vijayanagara period. Their presence in the Royal Enclosure signifies that the architecture of the structures and buildings in the royal centre was among the best that could be seen anywhere in Hampi.

          Present Condition of the Stone Doors, Hampi

          The stone doors are in a state of ruin now. The huge doors can be seen lying against a low wall in an unremarkable manner on the ground. The stone doors can be easily mistaken as something insignificant but for the beautiful carved look and impressive size.

          The impressive engravings on both sides of the door attract tourists towards this exceptional remnant from the Vijayanagara period.

          How to reach the Stone Doors, Hampi

          The Royal Enclosure is one of the most visited spots in Hampi. The stone doors lying within the enclosure can be easily spotted and accessed. However, the Royal Enclosure is a huge area and it has remnants of several other structures.

          It is good for visitors to start early in the morning and to hire a bicycle to visit the ruins lying within the Royal Enclosure. A bicycle will save visitors the effort of walking through the large area.

          Hampi is an ancient ruined city that has no airport of its own. Ballari (Bellary) is the nearest town that has an airport. Ballary is located at a distance of about 64 km from Hampi. Visitors can fly down to Ballari and then proceed to Hampi by means of local transport.

          Hampi, though a tourist destination, does not have a railway station within its area. The nearest railway station is located in the town of Hosapete (Hospet). It has the Hospet Junction Railway Station. Hosapete is located at a distance of just 10 km from Hampi. Visitors can easily take a bus or avail other means of local transport to reach Hampi from Hosapete.

          Hampi is well connected to many towns and cities of Karnataka by means of its road network. Several buses operate between Hampi and a number of the major towns and cities of the state.

          Visitors can hire private cars, cabs or other vehicles from major cities like Bengaluru (Bangalore) or Mysuru (Mysore) to reach Hampi.


          As with walls, dungeon floors come in many types and construction.

          Types of Floor Construction

          • Flagstone: Floors Like masonry walls, flagstone floors are made of fitted stones. They are usually cracked and only somewhat level. Slime and mold grows in the cracks. Sometimes water runs in rivulets between the stones or sits in stagnant puddles. Flagstone is the most common dungeon floor.
            • Uneven Flagstone: Over time, some floors can become so uneven that a DC 10 Acrobatics check is required to run or charge across the surface. Failure means the character can’t move that round. Floors as treacherous as this should be the exception, not the rule.
            • Smooth Stone: Finished and sometimes even polished, smooth floors are found only in dungeons made by capable and careful builders.

            Special Types of Floors

            • Transparent Floors: Transparent floors, made of reinforced glass or magic materials (even a wall of force). allow a dangerous setting to be viewed safely from above. Transparent floors are sometimes placed over lava pools, arenas, monster dens, and torture chambers. They can be used by defenders to watch key areas for intruders.
            • Sliding Floors: A sliding floor is a type of trap door, designed to be moved and thus reveal something that lies beneath it. A typical sliding floor moves so slowly that anyone standing on one can avoid falling into the gap it creates, assuming there’s somewhere else to go. If such a floor slides quickly enough that there’s a chance of a character falling into whatever lies beneath—a spiked pit, a vat of burning oil, or a pool filled with sharks—then it’s a trap.
            • Trapped Floors: Some floors are designed to become suddenly dangerous. With the application of just the right amount of weight, or the pull of a lever somewhere nearby. spikes protrude from the floor, gouts of steam or flame shoot up from hidden holes, or the entire floor tilts. These strange floors are sometimes found in arenas, designed to make combats more exciting and deadly. Construct these floors as you would any other trap.

            Common Features of Floors

            • Slippery Floors: Water, ice, slime, or blood can make any of the dungeon floors described in this section more treacherous. Slippery floors increase the DC of Acrobatics checks by 5.
            • Grates: A grate often covers a pit or an area lower than the main floor. Grates are usually made from iron, but large ones can also be made from iron-bound timbers. Many grates have hinges to allow access to what lies below (such grates can be locked like any door), while others are permanent and designed to not move. A typical 1-inch-thick iron grate has 25 hit points, hardness 10, and a DC of 27 for Strength checks to break through it or tear it loose.
            • Ledges: Ledges allow creatures to walk above some lower area. They often circle around pits, run along underground streams, form balconies around large rooms, or provide a place for archers to stand while firing upon enemies below. Narrow ledges (12 inches wide or less) require those moving along them to make Acrobatics checks. Failure results in the moving character falling off the ledge. Ledges sometimes have railings along the wall. In such a case, characters gain a +5 circumstance bonus on Acrobatics checks to move along the ledge. A character who is next to a railing gains a +2 circumstance bonus on his opposed Strength check to avoid being bull rushed off the edge. Ledges can also have low walls 2 to 3 feet high along their edges. Such walls provide cover against attackers within 30 feet on the other side of the wall, as long as the target is closer to the low wall than the attacker is.
            • Rubble, Light: Small chunks of debris litter the ground. Light rubble increases the DC of Acrobatics checks in the area by +2.
            • Rubble, Dense: The ground is covered with debris of all sizes. It costs 2 squares of movement to enter a square with dense rubble. In addition, dense rubble increases the DC of Acrobatics checks by +5, Stealth checks by +2.

            Heavy-Duty Offset Pivot Hinges

            The offset pivot hinge is an integral part of our legacy: it was sold by Ostrander and Eshleman, and manufactured, like the Harmon hinge, by the W.C. Vaughan Co. (Both companies have since merged with E.R. Butler & Co.)

            In the specification of hinge configurations, offset pivots offer many advantages: a seemingly endless variety of mounting options, greater concealment, and an infinitely adjustable pivot point. Offset pivot hinges are ideal for concealed or jib doors, as well as built-in furniture and cabinetry. As with our other heavy-duty hinges, we have enhanced the traditional design to increase load capacity and reduce wear by adding full complement drawn cup needle roller bearings, thrust needle roller and cage assemblies, and thrust washers for all door and panel conditions.

            Projection from pivot point to back of hinge is a primary consideration: it is variable and must be specified. E.R. Butler & Co.’s heavy-duty offset pivot hinges are made to order from 1 × 1⁄2 inch extruded material. Offset pivot hinges are available in all standard, custom plated and patinated finishes.

            The offset pivot hinge is an integral part of our legacy: it was sold by Ostrander and Eshleman, and manufactured, like the Harmon hinge, by the W.C. Vaughan Co. (Both companies have since merged with E.R. Butler & Co.)

            With over sixteen different configurations, offset pivot hinges offer many advantages: a variety of mounting options, greater concealment, and an infinitely adjustable pivot point. Offset pivot hinges are ideal for jib doors, as well as built-in furniture and cabinetry. The illustration on the next page shows a right hand jamb mount configuration, in both open and closed positions.

            As with our other heavy duty hinges, we have enhanced the traditional design to increase load capacity and reduce wear by adding full complement drawn cup needle roller bearings, thrust needle roller and cage assemblies and thrust washers for all door conditions.


            • Coach hinge
            • Counterflap hinge
            • Cranked hinge or storm-proof hinge
            • Double action non-spring
            • Double action spring hinge
            • Flush hinge
            • Friction hinge
            • Lift-off hinge
            • Pinge: A hinge with a quick release pin.
            • Rising butt hinge
            • Security hinge
            • Tee hinge

            Since at least medieval times there have been hinges to draw bridges for defensive purposes for fortified buildings. Hinges are used in contemporary architecture where building settlement can be expected over the life of the building. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California, was designed with its entrance ramp on a large hinge to allow settlement of the building built on piles over bay mud. This device was effective until October 2006, when it was replaced due to damage and excessive ramp slope.

            Hinges appear in large structures such as elevated freeway and railroad viaducts. These are included to reduce or eliminate the transfer of bending stresses between structural components, typically in an effort to reduce sensitivity to earthquakes. The primary reason for using a hinge, rather than a simpler device such as a slide, is to prevent the separation of adjacent components. When no bending stresses are transmitted across the hinge it is called a zero moment hinge.

            People have developed a variety of self-actuating, self-locking hinge designs for spacecraft deployable structures such as solar array panels, synthetic aperture radar antennas, booms, radiators, etc. [4]

            Door pivot stone from Girsu - History

            Do you think much about doors? What is a door? A door is many things…
            . an entry
            …an exit
            …a transition point
            …a portal
            …a connection between two worlds

            We couldn’t imagine our personal dwelling place without a door. From whence did they come?

            The first known door dates back to four-thousand-year-old Egyptian tomb paintings.

            Early doors were made out of whatever was available locally, generally wood or stone. Later, some doors were made-of or overlaid with bronze and other materials.

            Ancient stone doors had pivot posts at the top and bottom which fit into sockets for them to swing open and closed. My back hurts just thinking about opening that heavy door.

            In the 1st century AD, Greek scholar Heron of Alexandria created the first recorded automatic door. The Chinese developed the first foot-sensor-activated door around 604-618 AD for Emperor Yang of Sui for his royal library. And here I thought automatic doors were a relatively new invention.

            During medieval times of the 12th and 13th centuries, the symbol on a door was significant. It could denote prestige, status, and wealth. Doors and the architecture surrounding them became more and more elaborate.

            Once at a person’s door, how does one announce oneself? Door knockers were a favorite and, like doors, could tell a visitor a little something about who dwelt beyond the barrier. For instance, a lion door knocker indicated that a Christian resided within.

            Customs changed, both over the centuries and depending on your station. As they say, when in Rome . . . In Ancient Rome, knocking was done with the foot. In the middle ages, one would knock with a single hand, or some preferred a more subtle approach and simply coughed to announce their arrival. In 16th century Cologne, important people brought along a servant to knock for them. And in 18th century Versailles, knocking was out and scratching with the fingernails was in. That’s just creepy.

            An indispensable part of the door is the knob. History is a little unclear about when doorknobs came on the scene, but they weren’t as we have today. Knobs that have a fitted socket and a mechanism which allows them to turn didn’t pop up until the late 1880s. This surprised me. I thought turning knobs would have been around much longer.

            For some, a simple door would never do. The more unique, ornate, and bigger, the better. For three years, William K. and Alva Vanderbilt were working on a secret project that had many curious. The eight-foot-high fence protecting their secret came down on August 19, 1892 to welcome society’s elite to their Marble House in Newport, Rhode Island. The most impressive marvel of engineering was the pair of sixteen-foot-high and twenty-five-feet-wide steel and glass doors. Each weighed more than a ton! The knobs on such doors must have been equally impressive. They weren’t, and they were. They weren’t impressive because there were no knobs. At all. The impressive part was that footmen in maroon uniforms stood behind each door to open and close them so the wealthy wouldn’t have to exert themselves.

            Though I’m all for people opening and holding doors for others, I prefer doors I can operate myself if I so choose.

            Without doors, architecture would be little more than a box with no way in.

            THE DÉBUTANTE’S SECRET: Quilting Circle 4

            (Releases August 2021 & Pre-orders start in June)

            Will Geneviève open her heart to a love she never imagined? Her sole purpose in coming to Kamola is to stop her brother from digging up the past. When a fancy French lady steps off the train and into Deputy Montana’s arms, his modest existence might not be enough anymore. Mystery surrounds Aunt Henny, aunt to all but related to no one. A nemesis from her past arrives, and she must decide to flee again or risk going to jail. When secrets come out, will the lives of Geneviève, Montana, and Aunt Henny ever be the same?


            In the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. [8] In the Bay of Skaill the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll known as "Skara Brae". When the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. [8] [9] William Watt of Skaill, the local laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after four houses were uncovered, work was abandoned in 1868. [9] The site remained undisturbed until 1913, when during a single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took away an unknown quantity of artefacts. [8] In 1924 another storm swept away part of one of the houses, and it was determined the site should be secured and properly investigated. [8] The job was given to the University of Edinburgh’s Professor V. Gordon Childe, who travelled to Skara Brae for the first time in mid-1927. [8]

            The inhabitants of Skara Brae were makers and users of grooved ware, a distinctive style of pottery that had recently appeared in northern Scotland. [10] The houses used earth sheltering, being sunk into the ground. They were sunk into mounds of pre-existing prehistoric domestic waste known as middens. This provided the houses with a stability and also acted as insulation against Orkney's harsh winter climate. On average, each house measures 40 square metres (430 sq ft) with a large square room containing a stone hearth used for heating and cooking. Given the number of homes, it seems likely that no more than fifty people lived in Skara Brae at any given time. [11]

            It is not clear what material the inhabitants burned in their hearths. Childe was sure that the fuel was peat, [12] but a detailed analysis of vegetation patterns and trends suggests that climatic conditions conducive to the development of thick beds of peat did not develop in this part of Orkney until after Skara Brae was abandoned. [13] Other possible fuels include driftwood and animal dung. There is evidence that dried seaweed may have been used significantly. At some sites in Orkney, investigators have found a glassy, slag-like material called "kelp" or "cramp" that may be residual burnt seaweed. [14]

            The dwellings contain a number of stone-built pieces of furniture, including cupboards, dressers, seats, and storage boxes. Each dwelling was entered through a low doorway that had a stone slab door that could be closed "by a bar that slid in bar-holes cut in the stone door jambs". [15] A number of dwellings offered a small connected antechamber, offering access to a partially covered stone drain leading away from the village. It is suggested that these chambers served as indoor privies. [16] [17] [18] [19]

            Seven of the houses have similar furniture, with the beds and dresser in the same places in each house. The dresser stands against the wall opposite the door, and was the first thing seen by anyone entering the dwelling. Each of these houses had the larger bed on the right side of the doorway and the smaller on the left. Lloyd Laing noted that this pattern accorded with Hebrides custom up to the early 20th century suggesting that the husband's bed was the larger and the wife's was the smaller. [20] The discovery of beads and paint-pots in some of the smaller beds may support this interpretation. Additional support may come from the recognition that stone boxes lie to the left of most doorways, forcing the person entering the house to turn to the right-hand, "male", side of the dwelling. [21] At the front of each bed lie the stumps of stone pillars that may have supported a canopy of fur another link with recent Hebridean style. [22]

            House 8 has no storage boxes or dresser and has been divided into something resembling small cubicles. Fragments of stone, bone and antler were excavated suggesting the house may have been used to make tools such as bone needles or flint axes. [23] The presence of heat-damaged volcanic rocks and what appears to be a flue, support this interpretation. House 8 is distinctive in other ways as well: it is a stand-alone structure not surrounded by midden [24] instead it is above ground with walls over 2 metres (6.6 ft) thick and has a "porch" protecting the entrance.

            The site provided the earliest known record of the human flea (Pulex irritans) in Europe. [25]

            The Grooved Ware People who built Skara Brae were primarily pastoralists who raised cattle and sheep. [12] Childe originally believed that the inhabitants did not practice agriculture, but excavations in 1972 unearthed seed grains from a midden suggesting that barley was cultivated. [26] Fish bones and shells are common in the middens indicating that dwellers ate seafood. Limpet shells are common and may have been fish-bait that was kept in stone boxes in the homes. [27] The boxes were formed from thin slabs with joints carefully sealed with clay to render them waterproof.

            This pastoral lifestyle is in sharp contrast to some of the more exotic interpretations of the culture of the Skara Brae people. Euan MacKie suggested that Skara Brae might be the home of a privileged theocratic class of wise men who engaged in astronomical and magical ceremonies at nearby Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones of Stenness. [28] Graham and Anna Ritchie cast doubt on this interpretation noting that there is no archaeological evidence for this claim, [29] although a Neolithic "low road" that goes from Skara Brae passes near both these sites and ends at the chambered tomb of Maeshowe. [30] Low roads connect Neolithic ceremonial sites throughout Britain.

            Originally, Childe believed that the settlement dated from around 500 BC. [12] This interpretation was coming under increasing challenge by the time new excavations in 1972–73 settled the question. Radiocarbon results obtained from samples collected during these excavations indicate that occupation of Skara Brae began about 3180 BC [31] with occupation continuing for about six hundred years. [32] Around 2500 BC, after the climate changed, becoming much colder and wetter, the settlement may have been abandoned by its inhabitants. There are many theories as to why the people of Skara Brae left particularly popular interpretations involve a major storm. Evan Hadingham combined evidence from found objects with the storm scenario to imagine a dramatic end to the settlement:

            As was the case at Pompeii, the inhabitants seem to have been taken by surprise and fled in haste, for many of their prized possessions, such as necklaces made from animal teeth and bone, or pins of walrus ivory, were left behind. The remains of choice meat joints were discovered in some of the beds, presumably forming part of the villagers' last supper. One woman was in such haste that her necklace broke as she squeezed through the narrow doorway of her home, scattering a stream of beads along the passageway outside as she fled the encroaching sand. [33]

            Anna Ritchie strongly disagrees with catastrophic interpretations of the village's abandonment:

            A popular myth would have the village abandoned during a massive storm that threatened to bury it in sand instantly, but the truth is that its burial was gradual and that it had already been abandoned – for what reason, no one can tell. [34]

            The site was farther from the sea than it is today, and it is possible that Skara Brae was built adjacent to a fresh water lagoon protected by dunes. [31] Although the visible buildings give an impression of an organic whole, it is certain that an unknown quantity of additional structures had already been lost to sea erosion before the site's rediscovery and subsequent protection by a seawall. [35] Uncovered remains are known to exist immediately adjacent to the ancient monument in areas presently covered by fields, and others, of uncertain date, can be seen eroding out of the cliff edge a little to the south of the enclosed area.

            A number of enigmatic carved stone balls have been found at the site and some are on display in the museum. [36] Similar objects have been found throughout northern Scotland. The spiral ornamentation on some of these "balls" has been stylistically linked to objects found in the Boyne Valley in Ireland. [37] [38] Similar symbols have been found carved into stone lintels and bed posts. [12] These symbols, sometimes referred to as "runic writings", have been subjected to controversial translations. For example, Castleden suggested that "colons" found punctuating vertical and diagonal symbols may represent separations between words. [39]

            Lumps of red ochre found here and at other Neolithic sites have been interpreted as evidence that body painting may have been practised. [40] Nodules of haematite with highly polished surfaces have been found as well the shiny surfaces suggest that the nodules were used to finish leather. [41]

            Other artifacts excavated on site made of animal, fish, bird, and whalebone, whale and walrus ivory, and killer whale teeth included awls, needles, knives, beads, adzes, shovels, small bowls and, most remarkably, ivory pins up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. [42] These pins are very similar to examples found in passage graves in the Boyne Valley, another piece of evidence suggesting a linkage between the two cultures. [43] So-called Skaill knives were commonly used tools in Skara Brae these consist of large flakes knocked off sandstone cobbles. [44] Skaill knives have been found throughout Orkney and Shetland.

            The 1972 excavations reached layers that had remained waterlogged and had preserved items that otherwise would have been destroyed. These include a twisted skein of Heather, one of a very few known examples of Neolithic rope, [45] and a wooden handle. [46]

            A comparable, though smaller, site exists at Rinyo on Rousay. Unusually, no Maeshowe-type tombs have been found on Rousay and although there are a large number of Orkney–Cromarty chambered cairns, these were built by Unstan ware people.

            Knap of Howar, on the Orkney island of Papa Westray, is a well-preserved Neolithic farmstead. Dating from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, it is similar in design to Skara Brae, but from an earlier period, and it is thought to be the oldest preserved standing building in northern Europe. [47]

            There is also a site currently under excavation at Links of Noltland on Westray that appears to have similarities to Skara Brae. [48]

            "The Heart of Neolithic Orkney" was inscribed as a World Heritage site in December 1999. In addition to Skara Brae the site includes Maeshowe, the Ring of Brodgar, the Standing Stones of Stenness and other nearby sites. It is managed by Historic Environment Scotland, whose "Statement of Significance" for the site begins:

            The monuments at the heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae proclaim the triumphs of the human spirit in early ages and isolated places. They were approximately contemporary with the mastabas of the archaic period of Egypt (first and second dynasties), the brick temples of Sumeria, and the first cities of the Harappa culture in India, and a century or two earlier than the Golden Age of China. Unusually fine for their early date, and with a remarkably rich survival of evidence, these sites stand as a visible symbol of the achievements of early peoples away from the traditional centres of civilisation. [49]

            In 2019, a risk assessment was performed to assess the site's vulnerability to climate change. The report by Historic Environment Scotland, the Orkney Islands Council and others concludes that the entire Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site, and in particular Skara Brae, is "extremely vulnerable" to climate change due to rising sea levels, increased rainfall and other factors it also highlights the risk that Skara Brae could be partially destroyed by one unusually severe storm. [50]

            • The 1968 children's novel The Boy with the Bronze Axe by Kathleen Fidler is set during the last days of Skara Brae. [51][52] This theme is also adopted by Rosemary Sutcliff in her 1977 novel Shifting Sands, in which the evacuation of the site is portrayed as unhurried, with most of the inhabitants surviving. [53]
            • The IrishCeltic folk group Skara Brae took their name from the settlement. Active between 1970 and 1971, their only album Skara Brae was released in 1971, and reissued on CD in 1998.
            • A stone was unveiled in Skara Brae on 12 April 2008 marking the anniversary of Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becoming the first man to orbit the Earth in 1961. [54][55]
            • The video game The Bard's Tale takes place in a highly fictionalized version of Skara Brae.
            • The video game Starsiege: Tribes features an iconic map named "Scarabrae."
            • The video game series Ultima includes the city of Skara Brae, which is on an island to the west of the main continent. It is devoted to the virtue of Spirituality, located next to a moongate and is the home of Shamino the Ranger. [56]
            • In Kim Stanley Robinson's 1991 novelette A History of the Twentieth Century, with Illustrations, the main character visits Skara Brae and other Orkney Island neolithic sites as part of a journey he takes to gain perspective on the violent history of the 20th century. [57]
            • In the film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Jones is shown lecturing to his students about the site, [58] : 6 where he gives the date as "3100 B.C."
            • Skara Brae is used as the name for a New York Scottish pub in the IDWTeenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comic series. [59]

            ^a It is one of four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Scotland, the others being the Old Town and New Town of Edinburgh New Lanark in South Lanarkshire and St Kilda in the Western Isles

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            FritsJurgens pivot systems are unlike traditional pivots. Fully embedded in the door not the floor, the pivot is perfectly concealed. This key design element contributes to FritsJurgens being recognized for outstanding quality, design and appeal. It earned the 2017 Red Dot Award for Product Design.

            With no unsightly floor box or head unit to rebate into the ceiling, FritsJurgens are hidden, saving significant time and money on installation. They are outstanding for smooth transitions and continuity.

            The System M+ is the next step in the product range’s evolution. It is suitable for a minimum 40 mm door and includes a variable backcheck, soft-close function and guaranteed door closing weight up to 500 kg.

            With five models – System One, System 3, System M32, System M32+ and System M42+ – FritsJurgens pivots suit a diverse range of residential, commercial and industrial environments. The FritsJurgens concealed pivot door system is suitable for entry doors, office doors, partition doors and more.

            • Technology installed in the door
            • Maximum bearing and function capacity of 500 kg
            • Hold-open and self-close functions
            • Completely designed and manufactured in the Netherlands
            • FlowMotion technology allows for complete control over the closing speed, latching speed and damper control

            FritsJurgens pivot systems are unlike traditional pivots. Fully embedded in the door not the floor, the pivot is perfectly concealed. This key design element contributes to FritsJurgens being recognized for outstanding quality, design and appeal. It earned the 2017 Red Dot Award for Product Design.

            With no unsightly floor box or head unit to rebate into the ceiling, FritsJurgens are hidden, saving significant time and money on installation. They are outstanding for smooth transitions and continuity.

            The System M+ is the next step in the product range’s evolution. It is suitable for a minimum 40 mm door and includes a variable backcheck, soft-close function and guaranteed door closing weight up to 500 kg.

            With five models – System One, System 3, System M32, System M32+ and System M42+ – FritsJurgens pivots suit a diverse range of residential, commercial and industrial environments. The FritsJurgens concealed pivot door system is suitable for entry doors, office doors, partition doors and more.

            Watch the video: WOODMAN: How to make pivot entry door. Маятниковая входная дверь. (October 2022).

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